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Full text of "Knight Letter No. 83"

The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 




Winter 2009 



Volume II Issue 13 



Number 83 



Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 
It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

© 2009 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 



ISSN 0193-886X 

Mark Burstein, Editor in Chief, pro tern 

Mahendra Singh, Editor, The Rectory Umbrella 

Sarah Adams-Kiddy & Ray Kiddy, Editors, Mischmasch 

James Welsch 6^ Rachel Eley, Editors, From Our Far-Flung Correspondents 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 
(international), and $100 (sustaining). 




CONTACTS 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to Sarah Adams-Kiddy, 
the new Editor in Chief, at sarah@voraciousreader.com. 

The Rectory Umbrella: mahendra373@hotmail.com 

Mischmasch: sarah@voraciousreader.com or ray@ganymede.org 

All Must Have Pnz^5; joelbirenbaum@comcast.net 

From Our Far-Rung Correspondents: farflungknight@gmail.com 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed 

to LCSNA Secretary Clare Imholtz via email (below) or at 

11935 Beltsville Dr. 

Beltsville, Maryland 20705 



THE LEWIS CARROLL SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA 

President: 

Andrew Sellon, andrewsellon@optonline.net 

Vice President: 

Cindy Walter, hedgehogccw@sbcglobal.net 

Secretary: 

Clare Imholtz, imholtz99@atlantech.net 

www.LewisCarroll.org 

http://twitter.com/AliceAmerica 

http://lcsna.blogspot.com 

ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE 

Ruth Berman, Angelica Carpenter, Blossom Norman, Byron Sewell, Cindy Watter 

On the cover: The newly discovered oil portrait of Frances Jane Lutwidge Dodgson, 
mother of C. L. Dodgson, alias Lewis Carroll. © Estate of Philip Dodgson Jaques. 

See article on page 1 . 




^^ 




(jofttents^ 




^- 



THS RSCTORY UMBRGLLA 

SS 

The Lutwidge Sisters: Newly Discovered Portraits 

MARK BURSTEIN, JONATHAN 
DIXON & EDWARD WAKELING 

1 

Alice in Fort Lee 

AUGUST A. IMHOLTZ JR. 

5 

Alice-Dress Optional 

ERIN HUTCHINSON 

9 

Off With Their Heads: 
Those Awful Alice Movies 

DANIEL SINGER 
lO 

A Tale of Two Tweedles 

JON A. LINDSETH 

MISCHMASCH 

JABBBRING AND JAM 
21 

RAVINGS 
22 

ALL MUST HAVe PRIZBS 
24 

IN MeMORlAM 

Kitty Minehart 

Virginia Davis McGhee 

Rosella S. Howe 

Alan White 
26 



CARROLLIAN NOTBS 
28 

Alice's Adventures on the Woodpecker Ranch 

ADRIANA PELIANO 

Ola, Brazil 
Faman Studios 

The Hunting of the Quark 

WILLIAM HARTSTON 

SIC. SIC. SIC 
SeReNDIPlTY 

33 

OF BOOKS AND THINGS 

34 

The Logic of Alice: Clear Thinking in Wonderland 

RAY KIDDY 

End of the Century 

RAY KIDDY 

A Strange Evenki History 

CINDY CLAYMORE WATTER 

Demurova's Pictures and Conversations 

AUGUST A. IMHOLTZ JR. 

Wonderland: The Zen of Alice 

MARK BURSTEIN 

Two New Illustrated Wonderlands 

ANDREW OGUS 

Explorations: Three Academic Studies 

CLARE IMHOLTZ 

Eat Me 
Special Offer 

FROM OUR FAR-FLUNG 
CORReSPONDeNTS 

4« 

Art & Illustration — Articles ^Academia 

Books — Cyberspace — Events, Exhibits, isf Places 

Movies ^ Television — Music — Performing Arts — Tilings 




"It was the White Rabbit, trotting slowly back again, and look- 
ing anxiously about as it went, as if it had lost something . . .' 



Yes, Oryctolagus cuniculus albus is back in town. 
Well, I am, at any rate. For one issue, anyway. 
Having spearheaded the Knight Letter from 
issues 49 (Spring 1995) through 77 (Fall 2006) and 
having been hanging around as production editor 
since then, I was asked to take the reins once more 
from our iiber-busy president, Andrew Sellon, until 
a new editor in chief could be found. And she has. 
The brilliant and wondrous Sarah Adams-Kiddy, 
who has served as associate editor since 75 (Summer 
2005) and Mischmasch editor — or co-editor with her 
husband, Ray Kiddy — since 78 (Spring 2007), and is 
an editor in real life, has graciously accepted the title 
and all that goes with it. Bless her. I will let her intro- 
duce herself in greater depth when she takes over this 
column in the next issue. 

Supreme thanks are also due to the renowned 
August and Clare Imholtz for the splendid job they 
have done serving as editors of the "Rectory Um- 
brella" section for the past five issues, beginning with 
78 (Summer, 2007). This job has now fallen on the 
willing and able shoulders of Libya-born resident of 
Montreal Mahendra Singh, making this truly a North 
American publication. Mahendra is known, among 
other things, for his superb illustrations to the Snark, 
which graced the cover and several pages of KL 81, 
and for his witty talk at our Fall 2008 meeting in New 
York (AX 81:1-4). His blog atjusttheplaceforasnark. 
blogspot.com is a source of constant delight. 

We also welcome two new associates as editors of 
the "From Our Far-Flung Correspondents" column. 
James Welsch, a witty young man, has attended several 
of our conferences in the company of his mother. Sue 
Welsch, who has been an active Society member for a 
long time. He has been editing an art-&:-literary blog, 
wvvw.itwaslost.org, for three years, and writes non- 
sense poetry himself, collected in Prophecy &' Doggerel 



"under the nom de guerre S. Sandrigon" (available 
on his site). His first act as co-FF-editor was to create 
a Twitter stream at http://twitter.com/AliceAmerica 
as an alternate way to follow our blog at http://lcsna. 
blogspot.com. 

James spent a year at Oxford, where he met his 
Far-Flung colleague-to-be — and present neighbor — 
Rachel Eley. She has a degree in English Literature 
from Oxford, where she did her research on "another 
strange nineteenth-century English poet, Thomas 
Lovell Beddoes (the suicidal Romantic neo-Jacobean 
tragicomedian and a distant ancestor)." She is, in 
fact, the U.S. secretary for the Thomas Lovell Bed- 
does Society. Welcome aboard! 

Once upon a time the Knight Letter was the re- 
sponsibility of an otherwise busy Society president, 
making its "staff exactly one-half a person. When I 
took over, that went up to one, but I also served as its 
designer until the talented Andrew Ogus took over 
that spot in issue 71 (Spring 2003). That's two! But 
presently our magazine is a substantive and respected 
(and I hope, fun) journal, and I "rejoice" that our 
masthead now boasts a staff of seven. (A shout out 
to Joel Birenbaum of "All Must Have Prizes," not to 
mention our many contributors and advisors.) 

1 would particularly like to give a bouquet of 
kudos and props to Andrew Sellon for his glorious 
leadership over the past five issues, doing at least six 
impossible things before breakfast. And to all our 
present intrepid band, assembled on the bank, and 
heading into a radiant future. 

"Still she went on growing, and, as a last resource, 
she put one arm out of the window, and one foot up 
the chimney, and said to herself 'Now I can do no 
more, whatever happens. What ■will become of me?'" 

MARK BURSTEIN 



-^ 






^ 




THe ReCTORY UMBRSLLA 




MARK BURSTEIN, JONATHAN DIXON, 6^ EDWARD WAKELING 



I. Prelude 

Mark Burstein 

"For instance, the pictures on the wall next 
the fire seemed to be all alive ..." 

— Through the Looking-Glass, Chapter One 

Sitting next to Jonathan Dixon at our recent meeting 
in Santa Fe was unexpectedly, and grandly, fortunate. 
Glancing over at the production "study book" that 
he had put together, I happened to see a photocopy 
of a painting of a lovely young woman. "Who's the 
beauty?" I queried, only to be told, without fanfare, 
"Oh, that's Lewis Carroll's mom." I sat for a moment 
absorbing this; other than a silhouette or two, there 
were no known likenesses of her in any of the dozen 
or so biographies I had seen. I kept my excitement 
down for the moment, quietly asking Jonathan where 
he had managed to obtain it, a story that is told below. 
On the next page in his binder was another portrait, 
of her sister Lucy. 

As soon as I got back home I e-mailed Edward 
Wakeling to ask if I should get excited, or if this was 
somehow already known to the entire Carrollian 
world save me, or if some mistake had been made. He 
wrote back, "I think it's time to get excited — I've never 
seen these images before," and got me in touch with 
Caroline Luke, daughter of Philip Jaques and one of 



two executors of the Dodgson estate, via e-mail. She 
most kindly gave her consent to printing the images 
and also volunteered to find a hitherto unpublished 
letter between the two sisters (below). Having been 
around the portraits all her life, she was somewhat 
startled to find me categorizing them as "unknown," 
but I explained exactly what I had meant by "hidden 
in plain sight for two hundred years." 

So, ladies and gentlemen, herewith debuts what 
is considered to be the only known image of Lewis 
Carroll's beloved mother, Fanny, and a matching one 
of her sister Lucy, the woman who took over the reins 
of the Dodgson family after Fanny's death, when 
Charles was but eighteen. Caroline explains that 
although it has been a long held family belief that 
these two portraits are indeed of Fanny and Lucy, 
there is no concrete proof that this is the case. Four 
of the six Lutwidge daughters are known to have had 
their portraits painted and all four paintings remain 
in family collections but do not bear any individual 
identification. And now, the story of the portraits' 
discovery. 

II. A Golden Afternoon 

Jonathan Dixon 

In the early months of 1992 I had just completed, 
and handed over for publication, my illustrations for 



the LCSNA's edition of The Hunting of the Snark, and 
being in a transitional period in my life, decided to 
travel to England (something I had always longed to 
do) to take a time-out to "find myself." Without know- 
ing a soul there, I packed up two bags, flew to Lon- 
don, and promptly went native. 

As I traveled the country purely by intuition, fol- 
lowing whatever leads came to me, I discovered that 
being a Snark illustrator opened up a whole new world 
of friends and acquaintances. Using that credential as 
a calling card, and quickly mastering the fine art of 
name-dropping, I was able to meet and spend time 
with many Carrollians (as well as mooch free meals 
and accommodations from them), including 
some whom I had previously known only as 
names on my Snark research materials. 

Among these was the illustrious 
and courteous Edward Wakeling. 
Edward in turn told me about 
his friend Philip Dodgson 
Jaques (pronounced "Jakes"), 
the senior trustee of the 
C. L. Dodgson estate and 
grandson of Lewis Carroll's 
brother Skeffington. I was 
told that Mr. Jaques was very 
pleasant, but quite quiet 
and reserved; after hearing 
this I was undecided about 
whether to approach him in 
my travels. 

On June 29th, however, I 
found myself in the southwest- 
ern town of Dartmouth. My main 
purpose in the region was to visit 
the Arthurian sites in Cornwall, as 
well as the home town and bookstore of 
Christopher Milne (the original "Chris- 
topher Robin"). I realized, however, that 
I wasn't too far from Mr. Jaques' home, 
so I rather impulsively decided to ring him up. I ex- 
plained to Mr. Jaques who I was and asked if I might 
stop by to meet him for a quick visit. He said he was 
having family over, but could spare "one or two min- 
utes." 

Mr. Jaques picked me up at the bus station and 
drove me to his home . . . and "one or two minutes" 
somehow became three hours. I had worried that the 
conversation might be awkward, given what I had 
been told of his reserved nature, but sitting outside 
in his back garden, Mr. Jaques talked and talked, very 
openly. I was relieved to find that he liked my Snark 
illustrations very much, and I gave him the copy I 
had brought with me, at which he wandered inside 
to fetch something to show me: a first edition of The 
Hunting of the Snark, signed by the author himself for 
his sister Frances. 




Fanny 



Among other highlights of the visit (I am writing 
this article from the journal notes I wrote that eve- 
ning): 

• I noted to myself that Mr. Jaques very much re- 
sembled Harry Furniss' drawings of Lewis Carroll 
in later life — albeit with fuller hair! 

• Mr. Jaques emphasized that the Dodgsons were 
a very close family, and that this closeness must 
have had a great influence on Lewis Carroll, but 
he felt that no one (at that time anyway) had as 
yet really gone into those intrafamilial relation- 
ships in depth. 

• And, finally, as I was preparing to leave, Mr. 
Jaques pointed out two rather large portrait 

paintings hanging on his wall. He said that 
he was pretty certain they were of Lewis 
Carroll's mother, Frances, and his Aunt 
Lucy at the ages of about eighteen and 
sixteen, respectively (ca. 1821). I was 
surprised to hear that, for (as our 
editor notes above), I too had read 
that, apart from a silhouette I had 
seen in a biography, there were 
no known likenesses of Frances 
Jane Dodgson. I mentioned to 
Mr. Jaques, however, that the por- 
trait he named as Lucy Lutwidge 
did indeed bear a definite resem- 
blance to the photos Carroll took 
of "Aunt Lucy" later in her life. 

Sensing the potential importance of 
this — and worrying that there might 
be no other record of those images on 
the whole planet — I asked Mr. Jaques 
if I might take some slide photos of the 
paintings. He agreed — and those are the im- 
ages you see here. (Even now I am immensely 
grateful to the universe and the fates that the 
photos turned out as well as they did, given the 
less-than-perfect lighting and the fact that I had only 
one chance to take them, and very quickly at that.) 

Over the years I have shown prints of these pho- 
tos to a few Carrollians, to try to get a sense of their 
potential importance, but never really got much 
more than an "oh, that's interesting" in response. 
It was for the same reason that I took the images to 
the LCSNA meeting held here in Santa Fe in May. 
As noted above, before I even had a chance to men- 
tion them to anyone, during our presentation on La 
Guida di Bragia Mark glanced at them sitting among a 
stack of my visual aids, and made inquiries. 

The rest is the history you now hold in your hands 
. . . and I am pleased to have had a hand in bringing 
young Frances and Lucy Lutwidge to those who will 
most appreciate meeting them face to face after all 
these years. 



I would also like to dedicate my part in this issue 
to Mr. Philip Dodgson Jaques, for taking a strange 
American wanderer into his home, and for the mem- 
ory of our pleasant, golden, white-stone afternoon 
together. 

III. The Lutwidge 
Sisters 

Edward Wakeling 

Lewis Carroll's maternal grandfather, Charles Lut- 
widge (1768-1848), was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and resided in Hull from 1805. He 
was a collector (agent) of H. M. Customs at Hull 
for 35 years. In 1798, he served as Major 
in the First Regiment of the Royal Lan- 
cashire Militia in the rebellion in Ire- 
land, and afterwards as Command- 
ing Officer of that regiment at 
Dungeness from 1803 to 1804. 
He was one of the founders of 
the Botanic Gardens at Hull in 
1812, president of the Liter- 
ary and Philosophical Society, 
member of the Committee of 
the Hull Subscription Library 
from 1806 to 1837, Water 
Bailiff of the Hull Corpora- 
tion, and Receiver of Buoyage 
of the Hull Trinity House. 

On January 15, 1798, he 
married Elizabeth Anne Dodg- 
son (1770-1836), daughter of 
the Right Rev. Charles Dodgson, 
Bishop of Elphin. They had nine 
children: Skeffington (who appears 
to have died young); Elizabeth Frances 
(1798-1883), who married Thomas Raikes ^ 

(as his second wife) in 1825; Charles 
Henry (1800-1843), who married Anne 
Louisa Raikes in 1831; Robert Wilfred Skeffington 
(Carroll's beloved "Uncle Skeffington," 1802-1873); 
Frances Jane (1803-1851), who married her first 
cousin Charles Dodgson (1800-1868) in 1827; Lucy 
(1805-1880); Charlotte Menella (1807-1857); Mar- 
garet Anne (1809-1869); and Henrietta Mary (1811- 
1872). Hence, the children were born into a well-re- 
spected upper-middle-class family. 

As mentioned above, although there is no ab- 
solute proof that these two portraits are Fanny and 
Lucy, readers are welcome to note the similitude of 
Fanny's nose to her silhouette on the following page, 
and her eyes to those of her children; photographs of 
Lucy are noted above, and one can also be seen on 
the following page. 

The second daughter, born Frances Jane but 
known as Fanny, became Lewis Carroll's mother. 




Sadly, she died at the comparatively early age of 47, 
leaving a family of eleven children, of whom the 
youngest, Edwin, was only four-and-a-half years old. 
Her younger sister Lucy immediately took on the role 
of surrogate mother to the family, remaining with 
them until her death, aged 75. There was clearly a 
strong bond between Fanny and Lucy, as testified by a 
number of letters between the two sisters that survive 
in the Dodgson family. One of them, unpublished 
until now, annotated by the present writer, and cour- 
tesy of Caroline Luke, follows. 

IV. A Letter 

Annotations by Edward Wakeling 

Croft Rectory 

Darlington 

Saturday Evening Nov 1 3"* 

[1847]! 

Dearest Lucy, 

I begin my letter this evening by 
telling you what I am sure you 
will be pleased to hear — dear- 
est Charlie's mumps deafness 
has quite gone. I really felt 
quite thankful when this good 
news arrived this morning. 
Charles received a nice let- 
ter from him written in good 
spirits. Now I am commissioned 
by Skeff and all the children to 
thank you very much for the nice 
presents you have so kindly sent 
them tho' they say they are going to 
write to you themselves. You are quite 
right in supposing that we should not 
like the little book, kindly sent by your well 
meaning friend tho' we do not admire her 
taste — we think it almost profane.'^ Now 
for brevity — ^your "Technological Diction- 
ary" ^ has come and I think will be very useful 
to us — it shall be used, but I hope that we shall 
also keep it in good preservation for you. We 
do not remember receiving the Hull paper 
containing the new Dean of Ripon's Sermon, 
nor can I find it, but I should like to see it if it 
chooses to come out of its hiding place — we 
have only got the paper with Mr Gregory's let- 
ter to the Dean."^ We rejoice in the continued 
good account of dearest Papa. I intended to 
have treated you handsomely this evening, but I 
have had so many things to attend to — you must 
take the will for the deed — Good night — best 
love from us all to dearest Papa^ and you all — 
Your sincerely affectionate and attached sister, 

F J Dodgson 



V. Final Thoughts 

Mark Burstein 

These two family portraits continue to be passed down, 
appreciated, and enjoyed by one of the branches of 
the Dodgson family. We are most grateful that they 
have consented to their being debuted in the Knight 
Letter, and would be delighted to see them in future 
biographies or revised editions of existing ones — sub- 
ject to permission being sought and granted by the 
executors of Philip Jaques' estate, of course. 




I am sure that the date is 1847: Dodgson had mumps 

at Rugby School in October of that year. However, 

Dodgson's deafness did indeed continue, despite the 

comments in this letter. 

I have no idea what the book was that Mrs. Dodgson 

thought was "profane," but we do know that she 

exercised her judgment on all of Dodgson's reading 

material (notebook to this effect in the Dodgson Family 

Collection, Woking). 

A Technological Dictionary, explaining the terms of the 

arts, sciences, literature, professions and trades, by W. M. 

Buchanan, was published in 1846. 

The new Dean of Ripon was Henry David Erskine (1786- 

1859), appointed in 1847. Dodgson was well acquainted 

with his children throughout his life, and photographed 

most of them. Mr. Gregory is unknown to me. 

Papa was, of course, Charles Lutwidge (1768-1848). 

He had not been in the best of health and died on 

September 8, 1848. 



Frances Jane Dodgson in silhouette 




Aunt Lucy in later life 



Alice in fort Lee 



AUGUST A. IMHOLTZ, JR. 



-1^1 



^f\ 






^^ 



We heard them faintly, for we had just 

About completed our design 
To keep the George Washington Bridge from rust 

By filming it this time . . . 

Or maybe that was all our imagining — sens- 
ing Lewis Carroll among us with the ghosts 
of the silent film and early talkie movie ac- 
tors and actresses on the New Jersey Palisades above 
the Hudson River and in sight of the magnificent 
George Washington Bridge — as we, some seventy or 
so members and guests and Fort Lee residents, spent 
a delightful afternoon on Saturday, October 17, 2009, 
at the fall LCSNA meeting at the film museum in New 
Jersey's Fort Lee Historic Park Visitor Center. Fort 
Lee, like its looking-glass image (Fort Washington in 
lower Manhattan) was built by General George Wash- 
ington to control the Hudson during the Revolution- 
ary War. The plan failed, as did Fort Lee's movie fame 
more than a century and a quarter later. But before 
we get ahead of ourselves, let's rewind this reel to the 
day before. 

On an overcast Friday afternoon, 68 fourth-grade 
girls and boys, accompanied by their teachers and the 
school principal, assembled in the library of Fort Lee 
Elementary School No. 4 for the semi-annual Maxine 
Schaefer Memorial Reading. Ellie Schaefer-Salins ex- 
plained who we were and, more importantly, who her 
mother, Maxine Schaefer, had been, and why we were 
at School No. 4. Patt Griffin and Andrew Sellon then 
once again gave a wonderful dramatic reading, which 
is always a litde different, of the Mad Tea Party chapter 
to a quiet and clearly attentive audience of children. 
Andrew Sellon asked a few questions to spark discus- 
sion — though really the spark was already there — start- 
ing off with when Wonderland wsls first published. A lit- 
tle girl piped up immediately with the correct — surely 
for their cohorts correct enough — 1866. 

Most of them had read the book and were ex- 
tremely well prepared for our visit. Of course many 
had seen the Disney film, about which some were 
troubled by textual confladon — not their words but 
certainly their idea. The youngsters asked a lot of 
good questions, such as what did the book mean, if it 
meant (or means) anything at all? Some thought Car- 
roll was sending a message of how Alice (and every 



child) needs to act in a grown-up and sometimes 
crazy world, as she did as the Mad Tea Party. And the 
message ranged from "act bravely" to "speak up for 
yourself." A much bemused boy asked why anyone 
would have paid more than a million dollars for an 
1865 Alicel 

David Schaefer asked them whether they knew 
of any connection between Alice and Fort Lee. None 
did, so Mr. Meyers from the Fort Lee Film Commis- 
sion gave a concise and good explanation of that for 
the students and perhaps even some of their teachers. 
The kids enjoyed getting their copies of the Books 
of Wonder edition with the Maxine Schaefer Memo- 
rial Outreach Program bookplate in each one. The 
school's principal, Mr Peter R. Emr, and the teachers 
have good cause to be proud of their students and 
the environment they have created for them. 

And now, roll 'em! A little after noon on Saturday, 
LCSNA president Andrew Sellon began our formal 
meeting by thanking Fort Lee Film Commission Chair- 
man Nelson Page and Tom Meyers, the Commission's 
Executive Director, for hosting us in their splendidly 
equipped auditorium in Fort Lee Historic Park, and 
David Schaefer, a founding member and erstwhile 
president of our Society, for planning and organizing 
this meeting. Andrew then handed the proceedings 
over to David, who gave a very brief account of Alice in 
films, starting with the 1903 Cecil Hepworth produc- 
tion at Walton-on-Thames in England, through the 
1910 Edison company film, and so on. 

David then introduced our first speaker, Prof. 
Richard Koszarski of Rutgers University, a highly 
regarded film historian and author of a number of 
books on Fort Lee and America's early years behind 
the movie lens {Hollywood on the Hudson), editor of 
the: Journal of Film History, and a member of the Fort 
Lee Film Commission. The title of his talk was "Fort 
Lee Wonderland: Why Was the First Alice in Wonder- 
/anc? Talkie Made in New Jersey?". 

Prof Koszarski did a brilliant job of sketching for 
us the interrelated social, cultural, economic, and, of 
course, artistic history that had made Fort Lee, New 
Jersey, the first American movie capital. The great 
cliffs, the Palisades, overlooking the Hudson River; 
its proximity to New York City, though a world away; 
and the economic affordability of the open fields 





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a hundred films in Fort Lee, including his 1911 Civil 
War epic, The Battle. 

By 1918, Fort Lee suffered a number of setbacks 
from which, with but one interlude more than a de- 
cade later, it would never really recover. A serious coal 
shortage during the winter of 1918, labor problems 
with unions, fires and explosions, and finally a change 
of attitude of the townspeople led the major studios 
to move across the country to Hollywood, which was 
sunny, anti-union, and welcoming. With the coming 
of the talking pictures, the Fort Lee movie indus- 
try revived a little as independent film operations 
moved into the largely abandoned studios. African- 
American films like The Exile were made by Oscar Mi- 
cheaux in 1931, Italian films were produced in Fort 
Lee (Italy's film industry lagged behind that of the 
United States), Yiddish films were shot there, as well 
as the first Mormon talkie film, Corianton (a still for 
the movie showed actors on a set mildly reminiscent 
of Babylon, perhaps with a touch of the Mayan for 



and small "downtown," which through artful camera 
placement and angling could be made to look like 
New York tenements or cowboy Western towns or 
whatever, all made Fort Lee an attractive site. Movie 
companies Fox, Peerless, Champion, Paramount, and 
the French firm Eclaire built huge studios, like giant 
greenhouses really, at Fort Lee, while the movie mo- 
guls' headquarters remained in Manhattan or Paris. 
Lillian Gish, the Barrymores, and many other early 
film stars often stayed at Rambo's Hotel, which itself 
doubled as a real domicile or a movie saloon or what- 
ever was demanded of it. Producers like William Fox, 
Carl Laemmle (who founded Universal Studios) , and 
the Warner brothers all were active at Fort Lee. The 
famous American director D. W. Griffith made over 




Magic lantern slides and projectors 




good measure) . Among all of these niche films a pro- 
ducer named "Bud" Pollard produced, in addition to 
The Horror and other films (see below) , one film that 
was hardly of the niche market kind in 1931: the first 
talkie Alice in Wonderland, starring the young Ruth Gil- 
bert, our feature film of the day and one about which 
we shall say more below. 

Alan Tannenbaum, past president of our so- 
ciety and a major collector of all things Carrollian, 
spoke next, on the topic — which needs some expla- 
nation — "Alice 'Strips' for the Screen." The "strips" 
in question refer to film strips and other forms of 
pre- and post-motion-picture pictures actually mov- 
ing or in a sequence. In addition to the silent, and 
later talking, motion pictures, there were from the 
late nineteenth century almost until today alterna- 
tive image formats for adults and children to enjoy, 
in public events like musical stage recitals, and later 
in their home parlors, nurseries, or, much later, rum- 




"Animated" paper strip from the 1930s 



pus rooms (for those of you who grew up during the 
1950s, as this writer did). 

The magic lantern projectors were quite popu- 
lar in late Victorian England and in North America 
as well. There were many models, some candle-pow- 
ered and some with little chimneys. As he sat on the 
stage, Alan drew from his copious bag of niche Car- 
roll collecting treasures a sample of some Alice lan- 
tern slides — he has a set of 24. Later magic lantern 
projectors abandoned limelight for electricity. Often 
with slides — of the PowerPoint sort — he showed sam- 
ples of these antique video toys and more modern, if 
sometimes more primitive, ones. 

Abandoning strict chronology, Alan then leapt 
ahead to the stereo-cards and finally the Viewmasters 
many of us remember, though perhaps far fewer of 
us old-timers remember the Tru-Vue Color Stereo- 
chromes from 1952. In between the slow fading of 
the magic lantern and the spread of 35mm shorts, 
there were a number of paper and "film" gadgets like 




Greg Bowers 



the "Movie Jektor" and the "Talkie Jecktor" — devices 
through which you threaded and then saw Alice and 
an assortment of Wonderland characters move and, 
with the "Talkie," heard them speak. Uncle Sam's 
Movie Projector was ajecktor competitor, again aimed 
at the child market, unlike the Magic Lanterns, which 
appealed as much to the adult as to the child, per- 
haps more. Alan explained how they worked by show- 
ing a minute-long film complete with background 
ragtime music, and finally concluded his fascinating 
and quick-paced show-and-see-and-tell presentation 
with a set of Disney Educational Productions 35mm 
films in little blue tins from 1988. 

After a brief intermission, during which many 
members, guests, and local residents came to the 
front of the auditorium to talk with Alan and look 
at his gadgets, we reassembled for the second half of 
the afternoon's program. David Schaefer introduced 
Dr. Greg Bowers, our third presentation and the last 
flesh-and-blood one. In addition to being an assistant 
professor of theory and composition in the music 
department of William and Mary College, Greg has 
just composed a musical, Lewis Carroll and Alice, for 
the Children's Educational Theatre of Salem, Or- 
egon. The title of his multimedia talk was "Timid and 
Tremulous Sounds: What Film Scores Should Like to 
Explain about Alice's Adventures." 

Greg began with a quotation from Aaron Cop- 
land, "By itself the screen is a pretty cold proposition. 
Music is like a small flame put under the screen to 
keep it warm." To demonstrate how that happens, 
Greg proceeded to analyze the music composed by 
Stanley Myers for Gavin Millar's 1985 film Dreamchild; 
by Dmitri Tiomkin for Norman McLeod's 1933 Para- 
mount Alice in Wonderland movie; and by John Barry 
for the 1972 William Sterling Alice film. Film music 



cognition is something few of us have probably ever 
pondered, even though our minds often unwittingly 
engage in simultaneous processing of the images on 
the screen and the accompanying music. Whether 
image and music are processed as a unit depends on 
the factor of congruence. Bowers distinguished be- 
tween "semantic congruence," in which emotional 
cues work together, or underscore or reinforce each 
other — for example, soaring romantic melodies in a 
love scene — and on the other hand "temporal congru- 
ence," for example the way "fast cuts during a chase 
scene or a loud punctuated chord to underscore a 
crash enhances the sense of imminence in film." 

And after commenting on the particular difficul- 
ties of staging, filming, and scoring a work as episodic 
as Alice, he turned his analysis first to the film Dream- 
child. Here and below we can give only a single ex- 
ample or two of the points Dr. Bowers made — a task 
made more difficult by the lack of pictures and music. 
The theme of Dreamchild is Mrs. Hargreaves's recol- 
lection of and meditation on the nature of her rela- 
tionship with Mr. Dodgson, and "the opening scene, 
with plodding low strings and minor pitch clusters, 
accented by bursts of thunder, sets the stage." This 
somewhat nightmarish music offers a counterpoint 
to the question, the mystery, of Dodgson's real in- 
tentions toward Alice as Mrs. Hargreaves reminisces. 
And to follow this just a little further, Dr. Bowers ob- 
served that the tense music returns in the scene of 
the photo session with Alice in Dodgson's studio at 
Christ Church and "a holding pattern emerges based 
on an unresolved chord that will not move forward; 
the music remains in stasis." The music and the myth 
need resolution; whether it is achieved is a final ques- 
tion of the film and beyond. 

Dmitri Tiomkin's A/zc^ composition came at the 
time of the transition from silent movies to talkies. 
Again one example: "Image and meaning do come to- 
gether at many points in the score. A key congruent 
moment comes as Charlotte Henry's Alice ascends 




Ruth Gilbert in the 1931 film. 



to the looking-glass. Here, the tactile becomes emo- 
tional. Alice's ascent is echoed by an impassioned 
upward sweep of the orchestra. Notice that it is not 
Alice's travel through the looking-glass, but rather her 
anticipation of adventure that is emphasized." And in 
Alice's prolonged fall, falls being of some importance 
in McLeod's representation of the story, one senses 
some of the same kind of stasis one sensed in parts of 
Dreamchild SLud an actual echo of the familiar "There's 
no place like home" with Alice even commenting on 
the music she hears. 

The composer John Barry, perhaps best remem- 
bered for the soundtracks he created for almost a 
dozen James Bond films, wrote a grandiose score to 
the high textual fidelity of Sterling's film to the Alice 
books. In his Wonderland score, Barry bases "many 
melodies around the third scale degree and, more 
broadly, the interval of the third. The third scale 
degree defines major and minor keys and therefore 
sets tone. The third is also a less directed relationship 
than tonic/dominant. Harmonically speaking, a third 
may go anywhere, just like Fiona Fullerton's Alice." 
There are a number of examples of incongruence 
in Barry's music. For example after falling down the 
rabbit hole and landing, "Alice chases after the White 
Rabbit accompanied by hypnotic thirds. The calm 
pleasance of this 'chase' is a temporal mismatch. The 
music has the effect of a lullaby, reminding us we are 
in a dream." 

Dr. Bowers concluded with the belief that Alice 
has endured because of her fluidity, and "music has 
the capacity then, to continually reinvent Alice for 
new and diverse audiences." This brilliant talk greatly 
helped this writer to just begin to see what he had 
been hearing, consciously or not, and hear what he 
had been seeing. We look forward to hearing Greg 
Bowers's own reinvention of Alice. 

And now for our feature film, "Bud" Pollard's 
1931 Alice in Wonderland, starring Ruth Gilbert, the first 
talking Alice film. David Schaefer said that not much is 
known about "Bud" Pollard except that he operated 
strictly on the fringes of the motion picture industry, 
directing films with titles like The Danger Man; an Ital- 
ian film, Ofestino a la legge; The Horror; and a film tided 
The Black King, based on Marcus Garvey's life, with ele- 
ments from The Emperor Jones thrown in. 

So why an Alice in 1931? Possibly the occasion 
and cause were the upcoming centenary of the birth 
of Lewis Carroll, which was much in the news, with 
major exhibitions planned in Britain and the United 
States. The famous auction of Carroll's original man- 
uscript, Alice's Adventures under Ground, in 1928 had 
brought to the world's attention that Alice had been 
a real girl. In any event, the film was shot at the Met- 
ropolitan Studio, formerly the Peerless Studio, in Fort 
Lee. The screen adaptation, which, though not the 
complete text, hewed quite well to Carroll's dialogue. 



8 



was credited to John E. Godson and Ashley Miller, 
who seem to have vanished away after this film. 

David introduced Ruth Gilbert's daughter and 
her family, who knew of the film but had never seen 
it. Young Ruth Gilbert, who is said to have been 19 
years old when she played Alice (her family claims 
she may have exaggerated her age and never to their 
recollection said when she was born), had recently 
graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic 
Arts. She was later discovered by Eugene O'Neill and 
cast in several Broadway roles. She continued working 
in the legitimate theatre until the early 1950s, when 
she played the role of Max, Milton Berle's secretary, 
on his television show, for which she was nominated 
for an Emmy. Ruth Gilbert died in 1993. 

The film begins with a full orchestra rendition 
of Irving Berlin's "Come Along with Alice" — a song 
written for the 1916 musical Century Girl. Alice's first 
words, after falling down the rabbit hole, are a very 
American "How funny" and she did indeed have 
some funny-looking eyebrow lining. Her slight New 
Jersey accent would have perhaps horrified audi- 
ences accustomed to Oxbridge English, even though 
Ruth gave a perky performance as Alice. Some liber- 
ties are taken with the book. For example, a love rela- 
tionship between the Duchess and the White Rabbit 
is introduced, which could not have occurred even 



in Wonderland! Chapter III is omitted, Chapter V is 
out of sequence, and other changes follow — some 
of which are quite amusing, such as when Alice in 
the Chapter XI scene sees the tarts and remarks, "I 
suppose these must be the refreshments." The story 
concludes with Alice saying, again in her American 
patois, "Come on all of you, who's afraid of a paltry 
deck of cards?" The other characters, except for a 
convincingly mad Hatter and a Jerry Colonna-like 
Cheshire Cat, were not exceptional. 

Mordaunt Hall, the first New York Times regular 
movie critic, commented condescendingly on De- 
cember 28, 1931: "There is an earnestness about the 
direction and acting that elicits sympathy, for poor 
little Alice had to go through the ordeal of com- 
ing to shadow life in an old studio in Fort Lee, N.J., 
instead of enjoying the manifold advantages of a 
well-equipped Hollywood studio." The only known 
16mm copy of the film is in the Schaefer collection, 
though UCLA holds three partial 35mm versions. 
We certainly enjoyed seeing it 78 years later. And 
that's a wrap. 

[Thanks are due to Greg Bowers and David Schaefer for 
providing notes for this account, but they are not responsible 
for any misrepresentations.] 



^^, 
^^^ 






Alice-Dress Optional 



ERIN HUTCHINSON 






^^^ 



-^ 



i^^^sr 



Do we have to dress up? The idea struck me 
three weeks before my first meeting. I had 
been busy reading all the Knight Letters 
and re-reading Alice's Adventures, but I never stopped 
to think if I should show up in a skirt or as the Mad 
Hatter. Is this a costume party meeting and, more im- 
portantly, are there pop quizzes? If I forget the year 
Though the Looking-Glass was published, will Clare Im- 
holtz stand up and yell, "Off with your head!"? 

The meeting date approached and I had no idea 
what to expect. (Though I had decided that I was, 
under no circumstances, going in costume.) I came 
in, got my nametag and sat down to listen to Rich- 
ard Koszarski, the first speaker. By the third speaker, 
I had calmed down. There were no obscure Snark 



references and the people didn't speak in long, com- 
plex sentences with words straight out of the SAT 
textbook. It was just a group of pleasant people com- 
paring their Alice pins and talking about their favorite 
Lewis Carroll stories. 

I was able to watch several A/ic^ films, meet fellow 
Snark-ophiles, and get great recommendations on 
books to add to my collection. When later asked how 
my first meeting went, I could honestly reply, "No. 
They're not a// mad." 

[Erin Hutchinson, aged fourteen, attended our Ft. Lee gath- 
ering, her first LCSNA meeting.] 



^ 



^ 



l£^ 



T»V 



Off With Their Heads! 

Those Awful Alice Movies 



DANIEL SINGER 



Creating a satisfying film version of Alice's 
adventures is so extraordinarily difficult 
that it has consistently eluded filmmakers 
for over one hundred years. Visionary director Tim 
Burton seems the ideal candidate to hit this elusive 
nail on the head: in 2010, Walt Disney Pictures will 
release his new star-studded, computer-animation- 
enhanced, feature-length film, in 3D no less, entitled 
Alice in Wonderland. Will this finally be the adaptation 
that succeeds in satisfactorily bringing Alice's bizarre 
dream (s) to life on the big screen? Probably not. 

Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
and Through the Looking-Glass, aside from being eter- 
nally readable books, seem ideal for dramatization: 
their lively conversations, amusing characters, and 
fantastic settings practically cry out for adaptation. 
The stories have spawned several dozen filmed ver- 
sions, most of them dreadful or at least misguided. 
Most of us have had the experience of watching a 
film of Alice in Wonderland (as it is usually titled) 
and complaining afterwards that, well, it wasn't very 
good. 

These films aren't without their charms. But if 
you're one of those Alice fans who dreads watching a 
film based on Lewis Carroll's stories, you're in good 
company. In order to write this article, I've watched 
most of them again, and let me tell you, it was pain- 
ful. I won't be reviewing all of them — there are simply 
too many — but I'd like to look at the most well-known 
(and currently viewable) Alice films of the last century 
and take a stab at explaining what went wrong. I've 
omitted films that stray too far from the basic plot 
points of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland {Dreamchild, 
for example, or films whose primary focus is Through 
the Looking-Glass) . Sorry, I'm not reviewing any porno 
versions. Also, these reviews are necessarily short due 
to limited space — put a bottle of red wine in front of 
me and I could go on for hours. 

This analysis is based on my own strongly opin- 
ionated ideas, and as Alice would say, "Perhaps 
your feelings may be different." Since there's "no 
accounting for taste" (as the Gryphon would say), 
I know some of you will be outraged by my pro- 
nouncements. We all prefer certain films for largely 
sentimental reasons; but this is a review — you're wel- 
come to disagree. 



Let's look at some common problems that film- 
makers have faced. 

1. Alice is a seven-year-old child. Most filmmakers 
cast an older actress, expecting the audience 
to accept a post-pubescent woman in the role 
of a child. It's confusing and inappropriate. 

2. The casting of celebrities should not take 
priority over casting appropriate actors for 
appropriate roles. Was Telly Savalas or 
Whoopi Goldberg really the best person avail- 
able to play the Cheshire Cat? I think not. 

3. An actor in a tacky animal costume doesn't actu- 
ally look like an animal! Puppets and animation 
are far better media with which to portray the 
Mouse, Dodo, etc., if we are expected to empa- 
thize with Alice's difficulty at being suddenly 
immersed in their world. 

4. A series of conversations doesn't make an 
interesting screenplay, so a slavish adaptation 
of Carroll's text is a sure-fire way to sink your 
movie. On the other hand, most writers' embel- 
lishments (and radical reworkings) of Carroll's 
text are disastrously inappropriate, so you're 
hanged if you do, and hanged if you don't. 

5. The fact that the original texts are studded with 
funny poems does not mean the film should be 
a musical. The era of movie characters burst- 
ing into song is virtually over, and since most 
audiences squirm when someone on the screen 
starts to sing, filmmakers have to be extremely 
artful about inserting songs into Alice films. 

6. Special effects are expensive. Clearly some film- 
makers have been challenged by not having 
enough money to create a satisfying vision of 
Wonderland. 

Even after we've agreed that these are important 
points that filmmakers frequently stumble over, we 
come to the question of appeal. When movie mak- 
ing became a business early in the twentieth century, 
producers realized that successful films must contain 
certain elements that motivate the public to purchase 
tickets. Alice is not a sympathetic protagonist, and 



10 



her journey, while fantastic, lacks the classic storytell- 
ing fundamentals. This should have thwarted studios 
from ever investing in Alice films. Yet the stories have 
proven so irresistible that a major release has emerged 
in every decade, usually to lukewarm reviews and dis- 
appointing box-office takes. 

The appeal of Alice's dream tale is that it's fun. 
Alice's predicament — tumbling down a very deep 
rabbit-hole lined with curios, growing and shrink- 
ing whenever she eats or drinks, offending animals 
with thoughtless remarks, and holding her own when 
faced with rude, crazy people and a savage pack of 
cards — is funny stuff. But most of its humor is liter- 
ary. Read Alice's Adventures in Wonderland aloud to 
someone who's never read it before: it's genuinely hi- 
larious. It's funny, however, not simply because of its 
content, but because of the way it's written. Carroll's 
narrative voice is warm and witty and whimsical in a 
way that doesn't translate to film. At least, no one has 
ever succeeded in doing so. 

Alice herself, in the public's eye, compares unfa- 
vorably with the homey Kansas farm girl of The Wiz- 
ard ofOz. Dorothy's journey to a strange land is surely 
not any fault of her own (many judge Alice's tumble as 
karmic retribution for not minding her own business), 
and Dorothy's desire to return to her loving family 
inspires her to become friends with the oddballs she 
meets — ^who themselves then become valuable, coura- 
geous allies when faced with a powerful enemy. The 
screenwriters who adapted Wizard ofOz so brilliantly 
from L. Frank Baum's rather witless novel succeeded 
in whipping generations of audiences into an emo- 
tional frenzy over a child's discovery that "there's no 
place like home." This forever influenced future Alice 
in Wonderland screenplays as writers tried to make Alice 
more sympathetic by telling us that she's "sad" because 
she's "lost." In the original, Alice never feels lost in 
Wonderland; she's merely having a very strange day. 

Alice's plight doesn't have a pumped-up sense of 
emotional importance; she never takes her situation 
very seriously, even when events are terribly upset- 
ting. She cries, she scolds herself, she stomps away in 
anger and frustration, she wonders if perhaps she's 
been changed into a different person... all of which 
is very amusing in the books, but it makes for a weak 
movie character. That's why cinematic Alices tend 
to skip blithely from scene to scene: a living prop 
against which celebrities do bizarre cameos in tacky 
costumes. I know that's a gross generalization, but 
isn't that your impression of Alice movies? 

Now that I've gotten that off my chest, let's look 
at some of these charmingly awful films. 

Cecil Hepworth (UK, 1903) 

This badly deteriorated, ten-minute silent film is a 
marvel in that it still exists at all. The story of Alice's 
adventures is neatly compacted into brief, incompre- 



'^'^^^ihi ^•"^HiP 



May Clark plays Alice, and Mrs. Hepworth plays the White Rabbit 
in this first cinematic adaptation. Produced and directed in 1903 by 
the latter's husband, Cecil, the film, though badly deteriorated, offers 
us a rare glimpse of how Edwardians visualized the book. 



hensible scenes that serve to remind the viewer of the 
book rather than attempt to tell the tale. The Hall 
of Doors is accomplished by a very simple theatrical 
effect whereby a multiple-panel door, hidden behind 
a curtain, is revealed by Alice either pulling away a 
small bit of drape to show one low corner of the door 
(when she is supposed to be tall) or by sweeping aside 
the full length of the drape (when she is supposed 
to be tiny) . The White Rabbit's House, the Duchess's 
Kitchen, the Cheshire Cat, the Mad Tea Party, and 
the Queen's Procession whiz by until a violent argu- 
ment erupts and Alice wakes up. It's all broad pan- 
tomime with little reliance on dialogue cards. Lovely 
costumes, crude acting and photography — and Dodg- 
son missed it by only five years! One wonders what he 
would have thought of it. 

NonpareU (USA, 1915) 
Despite being made twelve years later and boasting an 
epic running time of one hour, this feature is not an 
improvement. It's strangely slow, with actors standing 
around a good deal of the time, and there's a heavy 
reliance on dialogue cards — meaning the audience 
was expected to comprehend the story more from 
reading than from watching the actors act. There are 
no visual effects to speak of, and the overall appear- 
ance of the film (production design and photogra- 
phy) is still remarkably crude. Oddest of all are many 
shots of the Caucus Race animals following a signpost 
pointing the way to the Animal Convention, as if that 
was something important enough to emphasize. 

Of course, these two films must have seemed 
miraculous in their day, but it is unfortunate that no 
Alice features have survived from the high period of 
silent filmmaking (ca. 1925-1927). Might they have 
been wonderful? 



11 




From left to right, William Austin, Charlotte Henry, and Cary 
Grant ponder reeling and ivrithing in Paramount 's disappointing 
production of 1 933. 



The failure of this Hollywood spectacular must have 
baffled its producers. It cleverly incorporated almost 
every scene and character from both Alice stories, was 
designed to resemble Sir John Tenniel's illustrations, 
featured good performances from big stars, and in- 
cluded several charming special effects. So what went 
wrong? Paramount's version seemed to include all the 
necessary ingredients for success, yet it ultimately failed 
to entertain. Filmmakers would be wise to study it. 

Black-and-white filming (along with a limited 
budget) renders this picture's Wonderland as a series 
of remarkably bleak, unsophisticated sets, and the 
elaborate costumes and grotesque masks are rather 
repulsive. Despite the rapid-fire sequence of scenes, 
the whole picture somehow seems flat and repetitive; 
the first scene (in which Alice is cooped up in a draw- 
ing room) is shockingly slow and soporific. Charlotte 
Henry is far too mature and perky to be an interest- 
ing Alice. The cast's enthusiasm simply can't pull the 
film out of its dull, repetitive rut. 

For example, the thought of W. C. Fields as 
Humpty Dumpty is much more entertaining than 
the actual scene, which is stiff and static. As the Mock 
Turde and White Knight, Cary Grant and Gary Coo- 
per deliver memorable performances, but critics 
were quick to point out that the stars were virtually 
unrecognizable. The Fleischer Brothers' animated 
version of "The Walrus and the Carpenter" is a nice 
diversion, but even that is crudely done, suggesting 
that the whole project would have come off better 
had Paramount waited a few years for Technicolor 
and other advances in film technology to develop in 
the later 1930s. 



Although the film is not officially available, it's 
easy enough to pick up a grainy DVD copy on the In- 
ternet. Apparently 15 minutes were trimmed off its 
initial running time, and although the screenwriter 
claimed that only the Live Flowers, Train, and Lion 
and Unicorn scenes were omitted from the script, the 
75-minute version we now see also lacks the Caucus 
Race, the White Rabbit's House, and the Trial. 

Dallas Bower/Lou Bimin (UK, France, 1948) 




Carol Marsh is seen here with some of the puppets created by Lou 
Bunin for Dallas Boiuer's Anglo-French version of 1948. The script 
takes considerable artistic license with the basic facts of Wonder- 
land's genesis, and also provides a rare, if unsettling, example of 
postwar French animation. 



This appalling film features live-action "bookend" 
scenes that tell a mostly fictionalized story of how the 
(bearded!) Reverend Dodgson first told the story to 
Alice Liddell. Although shot at picturesque locations 
at Oxford, the prologue and a brief epilogue are weak 
and clearly not historical. The middle of the picture, 
featuring a live-action Alice amid the stop-motion 
puppets of French animator Lou Bunin, is an amaz- 
ing example of questionable taste: the "modern" styl- 
ization of puppets, sets, voices, and overall presenta- 
tion is astoundingly ugly. I find this movie unbearable 
and never recommend it to A/?c^fans unless they have 
a strong stomach for revolting art direction. Once 
again, a lovely actress (Carol Marsh) was far too old to 
be playing Alice. 

Its American release coincided with Disney's all- 
cartoon version in 1951. Disney sued to block Bunin's 
film from competing — but lost the case. Turns out 
Disney needn't have bothered; both films performed 
poorly with both critics and audiences. 



12 



Disney (USA, 1951) 
Despite the fact that Disney's Alice in Wonderland 
dumped most of the text, tone, and appearance of 
the original book, it remains the most generally en- 
tertaining version made to date. After Paramount's 
dull production, Walt Disney felt that the way to ap- 
proach the adaptation was to emphasize movement 
and music. In place of Carroll's dialogue there are 
bouncy sight gags, tuneful songs, magical transforma- 
tions, and tons of luscious artwork. Disney's artists 
were at the top of their game in creating charming, 
funny drawings that moved gracefully and dramati- 
cally, even without a real story to tell. The writers 
abandoned their attempts at reshaping the story to 
make Alice a more sympathetic character, because 
Walt knew the audience wouldn't allow him to tam- 
per with a classic. His goal was to present Carroll's 
familiar characters in a fresh format. "If we don't do 
that," Disney said at a December 12, 1938, story meet- 
ing, "[our audience is] going to be disappointed with 
what we do... We should try to get the spirit oi Alice 
in Wonderland, and then, through our medium, do 
the things you can't do any other way." A few months 
later (March 15, 1939), he told his team, "It's going 
to be... an Alice in Wonderland that everybody can like 
and enjoy, and it will hit them just the same as it did 
the people who remember when it first came out — it 
was something fresh. ..and it appealed to people's 
imagination."' 

Stylistically, the film's art direction is full of typi- 
cally bombastic Disney touches. The characters have 
all been redesigned to be appealing to a modern 
(American) audience. Noticeably absent are the 
Mouse, Duchess, Mock Turtle, and Gryphon. Alice's 
graceful descent down the rabbit-hole, viewed against 
a backdrop of Dali-esque wood paneling, floating fur- 
niture, and gradually shifting colors of light, instantly 
establishes an eerie, otherworldly quality to the film. 
Every sequence tries to outdazzle the last. Alice's 
changes of size are astonishing, and her predicaments 
are extreme: the Pool of Tears, for example, becomes 
a rolling sea! Poor Bill the Lizard isn't kicked out the 
chimney and into the yard, but sneezed into oblivion. 
The Tweedles bounce as if they're made of water-filled 
balloons. The Caterpillar's trippy pronouncements 
are accompanied by illustrative smoke rings, an abun- 
dance of uncooperative arms and legs, and an unex- 
pected metamorphosis into a butterfly. The Cheshire 
Cat gleefully disassembles his body and rebuilds him- 
self at will. The tea-partiers liberally smash watches, 
crockery, and each other. The Queen of Hearts roars 
like a freight train and collapses upside down with 
her heart-covered bloomers revealed to the crowd. It 
all builds to a surreal, nightmarish climax where ev- 
erything swirls into blazes of color. It's crazy, man. The 
subtle madness of the original has gone full-blown 
loony. As an animated vaudeville show loosely based 



on Carroll's classic tales, it's magnificent, though con- 
sidered by many — including Walt Disney himself— to 
be a complete failure. 

Disney's version failed with cridcs because it had 
strayed too far from its source, and it failed with a 
public that was apathetic about its episodic nature 
and lack of an emodonally stirring story. The film lan- 
guished in the studio vault except for 16mm rentals, 
which increased dramatically during the psychedelic 
1960s. After theatrical re-releases in 1974 and 1981, 
it became available on home video, where its quali- 
ties were finally appreciated by a large, mainstream 
audience. 

BBC/Jonathan MiUer (UK, 1966) 




Anne-Marie Mallik and Wilfred Brambell kick off the action in 
Jonathan Miller's 1966 version. A fine supporting cast with careful 
art direction and photography are subverted by Miss Mallik 's odd 
air of disengagement. 

For years this well-remembered, black-and-white, 
made-for-TV version was frequently mentioned in 
articles, but it was not seen again until its much an- 
ticipated home-video release forty years later. The 
concept is amazing: Wonderland's denizens aren't 
animals but people acting like animals! The Overrid- 
ing Idea, which pokes fun at the creaky, old-fashioned 
Victorians, must have seemed very cool in the 1960s, 
and is still valid now — but this is strictly for people 
who already know the book. Otherwise, this version's 
step away from easily identified characters is hope- 
lessly confusing. I mean, a little girl following an ec- 
centric bunny into a tunnel in a park is marvelous, 
but when the bunny is a gentleman, shouldn't that be 
a cause for serious alarm? But I suppose it's okay, be- 
cause, well, we know he's supposed to be a rabbit. All 
right, I'll play along; the scenes are fairly amusing. 

Oh no! What's the matter with Alice? She's sul- 
len, despondent, staring off into space, rarely mak- 
ing eye contact. In some cases, she's not even speak- 
ing her lines — they are voiced-over, like wan, dreary 
thoughts. She never smiles, which I rather appreci- 
ated, but this is all too much. Anne-Marie Mallik is 



13 



the anti-Alice, distant, mumbling, in a stupor, sucking 
the energy out of every scene. 

Then there's the Tea Party and Mock Turtle 
scenes, wonderfully acted in a very conversational 
manner that makes Carroll's dialogue (plus some fine 
ad libbing) sound remarkably natural. But wait — the 
director has inserted long, awkward silences. They 
work, but they also make it challenging for us to stay 
awake. There's extraneous footage in the Croquet 
Game and barnyard sounds at the Trial that'll have 
you shaking your head. 

Result: a brilliantly conceived but awkwardly ex- 
ecuted experiment that comes off looking like an 
overindulgent, high-concept excuse to cheap out on 
costumes and effects. The fine cast includes Peter 
Cook, Peter Sellers, Leo McKern, Michael Redgrave, 
and John Gielgud — but sullen Alice ruins the show. 




Fiona Fullerton's Alice looms large in William Sterling's 1972 
production, another half-hearted British foray into Wonderland with 
lukewarm results. 



Hanna-Barbera (USA, 1966) 




Hanna-Barbera's 1966 version of Alice shanghais our heroine 
into the vast wasteland of American prime-time TV with genuinely 
mindless corporate efficiency. 



Nope, not going there. 

William Sterling (UK, 1972) 
This peppy musical film boasts some of the best 
makeup effects of any Alice film, but everything else 
about it falls short. Fiona Fullerton (at 15) was far 
too old and terribly uninteresting as Alice. I have to 
say it: she looks enormous on the screen — they did 
little to make her look childlike. The sets look cheap, 
the effects are dull, the "Tell us a story, Mr. Dodgson" 
opening is awkward, and worst of all, the score by 
John Barry contains some of the dreariest music he 
ever wrote. Fun performances by Michael Crawford 
(Rabbit), Robert Helpmann (Hatter), Peter Sellers 
(March Hare), Dudley Moore (Dormouse), Spike 
Milligan (Gryphon), and Michael Hordern (Mock 
Turtle) can't save it. The Tweedles were added to the 



storyline, but exasperatingly, the iconic Cheshire Cat 
scene was cut! Unthinkable. 

Rankin/Bass (USA, 1982) 
Fully animated, as cheaply as possible, this was an 
entry in the "Children's Video Playground" collec- 
tion that exploited every public-domain kiddy story 
available during the early home-video period. In 30 
minutes, it tells the story of Alice's adventures with 
admirable simplicity, and while it has nothing to offer 
adults, it's inoffensive stuff to show 3- to 7-year-olds. 

ChUdren's Theater Co. of Minneapolis (USA, 1982) 
A stage-bound production with excellent, lavish sets, 
lively direction, and good continuity that gives the 
whole a lovely dreamlike quality. This was probably a 
delight onstage (it's mostly the Wonderland tale, with 
a few Looking-Glass scenes inserted to fill out the eve- 
ning), but the video is unwatchable, as Alice (Annie 
Enneking) yells her lines as if projecting in a vast au- 
ditorium. It's like fingernails on a chalkboard. 

Broadway/Kirk Browning (USA, 1982) 
I'm glad that Eva LeGallienne's iiber-faithful stage 
productions, revived several times since the 1930s 
and always featuring outstanding actors doing marvel- 
ous interpretations of Carroll's dialogue, have been 
documented (somewhat) by this production — but, 
alas, it's a big snooze. The video begins with a use- 
less and irritating Prologue in which the cast argues 
backstage. Then we meet Kate Burton in her dress- 
ing room, where we actually witness Alice smoking a 
cigarette — it's hard to imagine a worse introduction. 
Then the play begins inside the actress's head, which 
apparently allows the actors playing the various roles 
to remove their masks after their initial entrance in 
order for us to better see the actors beneath. Weird! 
Alice never falls down a rabbit-hole or passes through 



14 



a looking-glass, and the lack of a device to enter 
dreamland shows us that this production will lack any 
sort of sensible continuity. 

However, this is f/i^ production for fans of Sir John 
Tenniel's illustrations. The sets and costumes (mostly 
paper-white with fussy, crosshatched black lines drawn 
onto them and a palette of pale colors limited to red, 
green, and yellow) reproduce Tenniel's drawings with 
obsessive fidelity. But that's the best thing you can say 
about this video. Kate Burton looks picture-perfect, 
especially when sitting in a hugely out-of-proportion 
armchair, but she enacts the role like a weary adult 
who has said the lines too many times. Eve Arden, 
James Coco, Kaye Ballard, Colleen Dewhurst, Mau- 
reen Stapleton, Richard Burton, and Andre Gregory 
are all excellent. 

This is the polar opposite of Disney's version. Al- 
most no action of any kind — just a series of conversa- 
tions, with an occasional Carrollian song — a very dry 
interpretation with very narrow appeal. 

Irwin AUen (USA, 1983) 
In the early 1980s 1 attended a meeting of the LCSNA 
in Los Angeles, where Irwin Allen, famed producer of 
campy disaster movies, announced he would produce 
a new Alice TV mini-series that would take advantage 
of modern special-effects technology. 1 promptly 
sketched up a poster that ridiculed the idea, show- 
ing Alice nearly falling to her death down a terrifying 
rabbit-hole, drowning in a sea of her own tears, and 
trapped in the White Rabbit's house as the animals set 
it ablaze. 1 sent the drawing to Sandor Burstein, who 
to my great surprise published it in KL 21, no doubt 
sinking any chance I had of a career in Hollywood. I 
even suggested a cast list of B actors and has-beens. 
My tag line: "A Paradise Destroyed by a Thoughtless 
Child!" Ironically my poster was far more entertain- 
ing than this disastrous production. 

Instead of falling down a rabbit-hole filled 
with furniture and props, Alice enters Wonderland 
through a dark cave lit with flashes of lightning that 
come from all directions. (This was someone's idea 
of taking advantage of modern technology? Sheesh! 
Cheap, cheap, cheap.) Alice is, at last, a child ac- 
tress — Mark Burstein had pointed out the impor- 
tance of this to Irwin Allen — but the cute, cheerful 
Natalie Gregory giggles and mugs and skips through 
the role, singing and dancing to dreadfully inappro- 
priate Steve Allen songs with an endless parade of 
confused-looking celebs in cheesy outfits. Jonathan 
Winters is an awesome Humpty Dumpty, and Lloyd 
Bridges is a perfect White Knight, but the presence 
of Carol Channing, Sammy Davis Jr., Karl Maiden, 
Telly Savalas, Ringo Starr, Ernest Borgnine, Shel- 
ley Winters (these last two names appeared on my 
parody poster!), Pat Morita, Sid Caesar, Imogene 
Coca, Red Buttons, John Stamos, Scott Baio, Sher- 



man Hemsley, Steve Lawrence and Eydie Gorme, 
Anthony Newley, Arte Johnson, Roddy McDowall, 
Ann Jillian, Sally Struthers, and Merv Griffin does 
nothing but make the proceedings embarrassing. 
Look out, here comes that awful, slithy Jabberwock 
monster to scare us! 

Jan Svankmajer (Czechoslovakia, 1988) 




Jan Svankmajer's Alice is let loose in the Central-European sur- 
realist 's vision of Wonderland with unsettling results. As always, 
Svankmajer's chicken obsession is given free rein. 

This stop-motion animation, with a wonderful 
child actress (Kristyna Kohoutova) as a live-action 
Alice, is light-years away from Carroll's original, 
but I include it here because it follows the story's 
structure rather closely. However, each scene has 
been reinterpreted by animating a grim collection 
of found objects in a highly symbolic style. This 
Wonderland is dangerous and profoundly disturb- 
ing. Not for kids, purists, or, well, anyone really. A 
hard-to-watch curiosity. 

Hallmark (UK, 1999) 
Boasting a large budget, this handsome but mis- 
guided made-for-TV production makes the usual 
mistake of covering up for its weak screenplay with 
celebrity star turns (Martin Short, Gene Wilder, Ben 
Kingsley, Whoopi Goldberg, Miranda Richardson, 
Christopher Lloyd, et al). The framing device — that 
Alice is shy about being forced to sing for an audi- 
ence — is what supposedly fuels her dream-world 
anxieties, but the idea isn't strong enough to keep 
the pace from tediously plodding along. Fourteen- 
year-old Tina Majorino gives an intelligent but dour 
performance, endlessly curling up her eyebrows to 
express confusion. Surely there must be a director 
out there who can create a more interesting charac- 
terization for Alice! 

The production design is innovative: the Rabbit's 
house emerges from a pop-up book; "The Walrus 



15 



and the Carpenter" takes place in a charming toy 
theater; the Trial set is a massive house of cards that 
collapses as Alice wakes up. But these embellishments 
rarely serve the story, and there are frequent perplex- 
ing choices that confound the viewer: Why does the 
Caucus Race take place on a pile of books? Why is 
the White Rabbit a clockwork toy with a nasty twitch? 
Why is the Caterpillar in the military? Why does the 
Duchess zoom around on a motorized stool? Why is 
the Mock Turtle so tiny? Why are most animals cre- 
ations of Jim Henson's Creature Shop, while others 
(Mouse, Dodo, Duck, Pat, Bill, etc.) are portrayed by 
people in Victorian clothing? There is an infuriating 
inconsistency, made worse by the seemingly random 
jumbling of scenes from both Alkehooks. 

To sum up — like many of us, I've imagined my ideal 
Alice movie many times over. Alice is played by an ac- 
tress no more than ten years old, who has to struggle 
to keep her sanity as her mad adventure progresses. 
When she finds herself chatting with a group of 
animals (as if she had known them all her life), the 
animals look real, and are in correct proportion to 
each other. Alice would have to experiment quite a 
bit with that mushroom to return to her normal size, 
even if it meant that her neck would rise above the 
trees like a serpent, or that her chin might strike 
her foot. The plants in Wonderland are also in cor- 
rect proportion: you won't see a lovely oak tree be- 
hind the Caterpillar's mushroom in my version — all 



you'd see would be a giant tree root and the stalks of 
tall flowers, because that's what you see when you're 
only three inches high. The Cards would all be flat 
because, well, they're made of cardboard, not actors. 
And I don't care if the dialogue or sequence of scenes 
is altered, as long as the screenplay is a clever adapta- 
tion vsdth good continuity. There. Is that too much to 
ask? Tim Burton, are you listening? 

Clearly there are as many interpretations of Alice 
on film as there are filmmakers. The source material 
seems endlessly inspiring. While I appreciate how 
hard the Disney artists worked to make Alice familiar 
and entertaining to modern audiences, it's obvious 
that many prefer their Alices darker and/or more au- 
thentic. There will never be an "ultimate" version be- 
cause no one will agree on what that film should be. 
But Burton, I hope, will come closer to the bull's-eye. 
You can get a sneak preview by checking out the trail- 
ers available on the Internet. 

But wait — what's this? He's cast a sexy teenager 
as Alice? She's returning to the Wonderland of her 
childhood dreams to help fix the things that have 
gone terribly, terribly wrong there? Oh dear, oh 
dear! Someone will be executed, as sure as ferrets 
are ferrets! 



Transcripts from story meetings held on Dec. 10, 1938, 
and March 15, 1939, courtesy of the Walt Disney Studio 
Archives. 



ANYTHING etSe I 
CANPOFORWU' 



Veah.Clive.me 

jot hit9« 3o»h«r 

, holt.Pe*$«^ill. 

M« migKl haw for 

zee ba today and 

me na uarit to 

tripoiftd — 





t You one ugly 2«eba. J 


-CV1UD/,| 



Stephan Pastis 's Pearls Before Swine from 
October 22 through November 1 ran a series 
called "Larry in Wonderland. " Here are 
some highlights. 




16 



-^ 



^ 



A TALE OF TWO TWEEDLES 



.i^yi- 



^=<*r 



JON A. LINDSETH 









^■J^^^^ll Carrollians are familiar with Carroll's use 
^^^^ of the Tweedle twins in Through the Looking- 
M. \.Glass. Carroll uses a form of the Tweedle- 

dum and Tweedledee nursery rhyme that I will call 
version A: 

Tweedledum and Tweedledee 
Agreed to have a battle; 
For Tweedledum said Tweedledee 
Had spoiled his nice 
new rattle. 



New Edition, 1997, pages 501 and 502) quote both 
versions A and B and include the following note: 

'' Original Ditties for the Nursery (J. Harris), 
C.1805, 'Agreed to fight a batde ... As 
black as a tar barrel' [1807] / JOH, 1853 
/Through the Looking-Glass, Lewis Carroll, 
1865 [sic], 'Just then flew down a mon- 
strous crow, As black as a tar barrel.'" 



Just then flew down a 
monstrous crow, 
As black as a tar-barrel; 
Which frightened both the 

heroes so. 
They quite forgot their 

quarrel. 

The other, earlier version 
of the Tweedle couplet, which 
I will call version B, is usually 
ascribed to John Byrom and 
included in his posthumously 
published book Miscellaneous 
Poems (Manchester: J. Harrop, 
1773, Vol. 1, pages 343 and 
344): 



JHiiiet/or tkt Niu-ie/y, 

I. 
Tweedleduro and TwtctUcdte 

Agreed to fight a battle ; 
For TwredlcduiQ, said Twrecdkdec. 

Had spotted his nice new rattle. 

ir. 

Ju»t then flew down a raonttroua crow, 

As black as a tar barrel : 
■Wliich frightcn'd both th« \wton •©, 

Tliey quite forgot their qiurrcl. 



f9 



There was a great old man» 
Of a ntoat voracious clan. 
Who firigblea'd all the people ! 



Some say, compar'd to 
Bononcini, 
That Mynheer Handel's 

but a Ninny; 
Others aver, that he to 

Handel 
Is scarcely fit to hold a Candle: 
Strange all this Difference should be, 
'Twixt Tweedle-dum and Txveedle-dee! 

I cite Byrom 's book because it is usually referred 
to as the earliest use in print of Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee. However, the evidence below will show 
that it is not. 

lona and Peter Opie in The Oxford Dictionary of 
Nursery Rhymes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 



Figure 1. The first use of the Tweedledum and Tweedledee nursery 
rhyme found in Original Ditties for the Nursery, so Wonder- 
fully Contrived that They May Be Either Sung Or Said, by 
Nurse Or Baby, Third Edition, 1807. 



But what are the ori- 
gins of the two Tweedle 
variants? We'll turn first 
to version A. The earliest 
use of this version known 
in print is in Original Dit- 
ties for The Nursery; so Won- 
derfully Contrived that They 
May Be Either Sung Or Said, 
by Nurse Or Baby (London: 
Printed for J. Harris, 3rd 
Edition, 1807). My own 
collection lacks this book, 
and for good reason: Only 
three copies are known. 
In John Harris's Books for 
Youth 1801-1843 (Folke- 
stone: Dawson Publishing, 
1992), the compiler Marjo- 
rie Moon reports that she 
was unable to locate any 
copy of the first or second 
edition and only two cop- 
ies of the third. In a search 
of the UK and Ireland 
library database Copac Academic and National 
Library Catalogue (COPAC), no copy of the first 
or second edition was located, and only the Bodle- 
ian copy of the 1807 third edition. Not listed on 
COPAC but listed by Moon is the second copy at 
the Hockliffe Collection at De Montfort University 
in Leicester, UK. The Online Computer Library 
Center (OCLC World Cat) listed no copies of the 
first or second edition and only one copy of the 
third edition at Princeton. 



17 



220 



The Bodleian copy was bequeathed to the library 
upon the death of the antiquary Francis Douce in 
1834; hence, the book was there at the time Carroll 
was writing Looking-Glass. (Furthermore, his rooms at 
Christ Church were only a seven-minute walk from 
the Bodleian.) In this 1807 third edition, page 29 
(see Figure 1), we find: 

Tweedledum and Tweedledee 

Agreed to fight a battle; 
For Tweedledum, said Tweedledee, 

Had spoiled his nice new rattle. 

Just then flew down a monstrous crow. 

As black as a tar barrel; 
Which frighten 'd both the heroes so, 
They quite forgot their quarrel. 

This version differs from Carroll's in 
line 2, where Harris has "fight" and Car- 
roll has "have"; in line 3, where Harris 
places a comma after Tweedledum and 
Carroll lacks a comma (thus reversing 
the accuser and the accused!); in line 
6, where Harris has no hyphen yet Car- 
roll hyphenates "tar barrel"; and finally 
in line 7, where Harris contracts "fright- 
ened" and Carroll does not. Both Carroll 
and Harris have eight lines and 42 words 
in the rhyme. Of the 42 words, Harris and 
Carroll share 41 identical ones, although 
Harris has Dum spoiling the rattle while 
Carroll says it was Dee. 

Another book that Carroll had in 
his own library in two versions is James 
Orchard Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes 
of England, Collected principally from Oral 
Tradition. The Brooks auction catalogue 
of Carroll's estate library, dated May 10, 



Figure 2. A Tweedle page from Halliwell's 
1898, lists lot 842, Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes xhe Nursery Rhymes of England, 
of England, and lot 874, Halliwell's Nursery Collected principally from Oral Tradi- 
Rhymes and Tales. Jeffrey Stern reproduced tion, two editions of which were in Lewis 
the Brooks catalogue in his own two books Carroll's personal library. 
on Carroll's library. In one of these, Lewis 
Carroll Bibliophile (Luton, Bedfordshire: 
White Stone Publishing, 1997), Stern alphabetically 
indexes by author (or compiler in the case of Hal- 
liwell), and the two Halliwell books are entries 1126 
and 1127. 

The Bodleian has the 1843, 1844, 1846, and 1853 
editions of Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes. According to 
Stephen Arnold at the Bodleian, any book not a do- 
nation, such as these, came on legal deposit the same 
year as the publication date or soon thereafter, so 
these books were available to Carroll in the Bodleian. 
There was also a ca.l870 edition of the book, not at 
the Bodleian, but no doubt available in Oxford book- 
stores at the time Carroll was writing Looking-Glass. 



One edition of this book. Brooks lot 842 and Stern 
lot 1126, was in Carroll's library. On page 220 of both 
the 1853 and ca.l870 editions, headlined as "Jingles," 
is this entry number CCCCXXVIII (see Figure 2): 

Tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee 

Resolved to have a battle. 
For tweedle-dum said tweedle-dee 

Had spoiled his nice new rattle. 

Just then flew by a monstrous crow, 

As big as a tar-barrel. 
Which frightened both the heroes so. 
They quite forgot their quarrel. 

This version differs from Carroll's in lines 1 and 
3, where Halliwell hyphenated the Tweedle names 
and Carroll did not and where 
Carroll capitalized Tweedle 
and Halliwell did not (except 
at the beginning of line 1); in 
lines 2 and 6, where Halliwell 
has commas and Carroll has 
semicolons; in line 2, where 
Halliwell uses "resolved" and 
Carroll "agreed"; between the 
two stanzas, where Halliwell 
has no space and Carroll leaves 
a space; in line 5, where Hal- 
liwell has "by" and Carroll has 
"down"; and in line 6, where 
Halliwell uses "big" while Car- 
roll uses "black." Once again, 
both Carroll and Halliwell use 
eight lines and 42 words, and 
of the 42 words, Halliwell and 
Carroll have 39 identical. 

Also in print, but not at 
the Bodleian (the Bodleian 
lists only an 1885 edition in 
their library), was a ca.l868 edi- 
tion of a similar Halliwell book, 
Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Tales 
of England (London: Freder- 
ick Warne and Co.; New York: 
Scribner, Wellford, and Armstrong, 5th Edition), 
with the Tweedle nursery rhyme on page 86 and 
still numbered CCCCXXVIII. Carroll also had this 
title in his library, as Brooks lot 874 and Stern lot 
1127. I have viewed images from microfilm at the 
Cleveland Public Library of the two Halliwell books 
(ca.l868 and ca.l870 editions), which are identified 
as made from books in the Opies' collection. 

It seems unlikely that Carroll, in writing his 
own Tweedle rhyme, would have chosen to use most 
of the same words as Harris and most of the same 
words as Halliwell strictly by chance. There are too 



CCCCXXVIII. 

TwBBDLB-dum and tweedle-dee 

Resolved to have a battle. 
For tweedle-dum said tweedle-dee 

Had spoiled his nice new rattle. 
Just then flew by a monstrous crow. 

As big as a tar-barrel, 
Which frightened both the heroes so. 

They quite forgot their quarreL 



ccccxxii: 

Comb dance a iig 
To my Graimy s pig. 

With a raudy, rowdy, dowdy ; 
Come dance a jig 
To my Granny's pig, 

And pussy-cat shall crowdy. 



PcssicAT, wussicat, with a white foot. 
When is your wedding ? for I'll come to*t. 
The beer's to brew, the bread's to bake, 
Pussy-cat, pussy-cat, don't be too late. 



many other choices. The rational conclusion is that 



18 



he must have consulted either Harris or Halliwell, or 
quite likely both. 

Some critics have conjectured that Carroll used 
neither Harris nor Halliwell, but rather an oral 
source. However, the Opies, in Three Centuries of 
Nursery Rhymes and Poetry for Children (Oxford: Ox- 
ford University Press, 2nd Edition, 1977), write on 
page 6, entry 41, concerning Halliwell: "Neverthe- 
less scarcely any of the rhymes — if any at all — were 
orally collected." 

I asked Prof. Francine Abeles to have a look at the 
statistical evidence that Carroll used either Harris or 
Halliwell as his source for the Tweedle nursery rhyme. 
She in turn consulted Prof. Eugene Seneta, Emeritus 
Professor of Mathematical Statistics at the University 
of Sydney, Australia. Prof. Seneta performed some- 
thing called a "Sign Test" to 
statistically determine, based 
on a limited number of ob- 
servations, whether the pluses 
and minuses were imbalanced 
enough to eliminate one of 
the two possible outcomes, 
and concluded that "Carroll 
relied heavily on the . . . Har- 
ris version." He added that 
Carroll may have "glanced" at 
the Halliwell rhyme. 

The Opies, in their pref- 
ace to The Oxford Dictionary of 
Nursery Rhymes, also write of 
Halliwell's work: "For a cen- 
tury its authority as the stan- 
dard work (of nursery rhymes) 
has been unchallenged." Car- 
roll did not cite sources for 

most of his parodies or adaptations, which were many, 
and so it is left to researchers to locate them. But 
the Harris and the Halliwell books were both readily 
available to Carroll, and in the Halliwell case, in his li- 
brary. Carroll used the form and layout of the rhyme 
found in Harris and Halliwell and all of the words 
common to both versions. Of those words that differ 
in the two versions, Carroll used words from one or 
the other but not differing words. 

Modern Internet search engines are powerful 
tools. If researchers think that Carroll used a source 
other than Harris and Halliwell, let them produce 
the evidence. Lacking that, a reasonable conclusion 
is that either one or both of the Harris and Halliwell 
rhymes were used for Carroll's Tweedle verses in 
Through the Looking-Glass. 

Next, we turn to the Byrom poem (version B). 
Byrom's manuscript /owrna/, later published by the 
Chetham Society, mentions the Handel epigram 
in an entry of May 9, 1725, but does not include 
the epigram itself. However, in The London Journal 



[ lU 
Voy. 

emen 
went 
a nay 

::«do- 

tohii 
; and 
:r,in 
fame 
'cr. 
dCn- 
b m 
rd by 

fthc 

Lord 



Figure 3. The London Journal of Saturday, June 5, 1725, with 
the first knozvn use in print of "Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee. " 



of June 5, 1725, we find on page 2, column 2 (see 
Figure 3): 

The Contest. 

By the Author of the celebrated Pastoral, 
My Time, O ye Muses, was happily spent. 

Some say that Seignior Bononchini, 
Compar'd to Handel's a meer Ninny; 
Others aver, to him, that Handel 
Is scarcely fit to hold a Candle, 
Strange ! that such high Disputes shou'd be 
'Twixt Tweedledum and Tiveedledee. 

(Byrom was the author of "A Pastoral," the first line 
of which is "My Time, O ye Muses, was happily spent," 
and it is also the first entry on page 1 of his 1773 

book.) 

Wikipedia has a num- 
ber of pages on Byrom 
and cites Bartlett's Famil- 
iar Quotations (10th edi- 
tion, 1919), wherein he 
is quoted: "Nourse asked 
me if 1 had seen the 
verses upon Handel and 
Bononcini, not knowing 
that they were mine." By- 
rom's Remains (Chetham 
Society, Vol. i., page 173) 
states: "The last two lines 
have also been attributed 
to Swift and Pope (see 
Scott's edition of Swift 
and Dyce's edition of 
Pope)." 

The earliest book I 
have found with the Byrom epigram included was 
compiled (anonymously) by William Oldys, A Col- 
lection of Epigrams (London: Printed for J. Walthoe, 
1727), where it is numbered CCCXXI. 

The use of this epigram is also cited as an anony- 
mous "Epigram on the feuds about Handel and Bon- 
oncini" in Jonathan Swift, Miscellanies (by Swift et al., 
London: for Benjamin Motte and Lawton Gilliver, 
1733, Vol. 3, page 233). Another reference claims 
that this appeared in a 1732 edition, although I have 
not seen either edition. 

J. A. Picton discussed this epigram in Notes & Que- 
ries (5th series. Vol. 3, Jan. 9, 1875), pages 30-31. He 
writes: "The epigram in question, at the time of its 
publication in June 1725, was popularly attributed to 
Dr. Jonathan Swift, then in the zenith of his popular- 
ity and the mistake has been perpetuated ever since. 
It was really written by John Byrom. . . ." Picton adds: 
"The epigram was written in 1725. Byrom's Journal 
published with his Remains by the Chetham Society 
contains the following entry, under date Saturday 



ih^ Lftdy Howe.— ~-Gebrge Brown Esq-, oL 
Ditchy inOxfordlhire, Son of SjrCh«rlf5brov;n,l 
CO the Lady Barbary Lee, S.ftcr of the Eirl c< 
Litchfield. 

Tbe CONTEST. 

By the .iHtbrr of tl:e celebrated Paffcraf, M) 

Time, O ye Mufes, wai happily fpenr. 

SOME ffty. that Seignior fiu«i.«c/.;«/, 
Compar'd to Handel'^ a meer Ninny ; 
Otheii ftver, to liim, ihat Ilarutd 
h fctrceiy fit to bold a Candle. 
Strange ! that fucb high Difputes fliou'd be 
'Twixt Ttx/ecdletlum and 'Ivtedltdec. 

We have received tbe Letter f o>» Dublin, 
(igned Philaorhropuf, ts.bkb Jball l/t infated 
ibe frfi Opporiunitj. 

7 he Prices vfGotds at Bear Key. 
'A'hcat x6. 53. 16. I Beans 19 to 13. 
Rve lo to IX. Pale Mi.lt 16 to i6 



i. H 

9- 

ietcin^ 
10. 
Ap 
which 
i)iiz(X 
«bove 

Air 

Uis 

T 

Mill 
ing tl 
teis o 
tir« 
■ ht C 
SOlEi 
cdlcr 

AViD : 



19 



June 5, 1725: 'We went to see Mr. Hooper, who was 
at dinner at Mr. Whitworth's; he came over to us at 
Mill's coffee house: told us of my epigram upon Han- 
del and Bononcini being in the papers.'" 

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) attributes 
version B to Byrom and dates it to 1725, but they did 
not find it in print before Byrom 's Miscellaneous Poems 
of 1773 quoted above. I sent an early version of this 
essay to the OED, and Margot Charlton of the OED 
responded that the dictionary volume including the 
letter T was published in 1916, "not a good time for 
scholarly research." She said my note would be added 
to the OED's revision file, and "we shall reconsider 
every aspect of the entry when we come to revise the 
letter T." It is now 93 years after the publication of T, 
and the time for revision should be soon approach- 
ing. 

Also found in print are a number of other uses 
of Tweedledum and Tweedledee, both prior to 1773 
and then many after. In Shenstone's Works (London, 
1769) is his letter of 1739 containing the usage. In 
1749 and in a fifth edition of 1758, William Melmoth 
used the Tweedle couplet in his Letters on Several Sub- 
jects. On page 325, Melmoth wrote: "Tweedle-dum 
and Tweedle-dee are most undoubtedly the names of 
the two musicians." 

Earlier citations can be found of the word twee- 
dle alongside the word dub. Alexander Radcliffe in 
"A call to the guard by a drum" (ca. 1668-1680) in- 
cludes these lines to contrast tweedle as the sound of 
the bagpipe with dub-a-dub as the roll of drums: 

Some with Tweedle, wheedle, wheedle; whilst we beat 

Dub a Dub; 
Keep the base Scottish noise, and as base Scottish scrub: 

And Aphra Behn in The Luckey Chance (1687) 
wrote for the sound of a fiddle going out of tune, 
"twang, twang, twang, fum, fum, tweedle, tweedle, 
tweedle." 

In the Opies' entry for Tweedledum and Twee- 
dledee in The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, page 
502, they conclude with this observation: "Byrom is 




said to have coined the words 'Tweedledum' and 
'Tweedledee.' However, the last couplet is also at- 
tributed to Swift and Pope. The nursery rhyme is not 
found in print till eighty years later, but it may origi- 
nally have described the feud, or, be earlier, and have 
given Byrom the idea for his verse." 

Martin Gardner agrees (citing the Opies) and 
writes in The Annotated Alice (New York: Clarkson N. 
Potter, Inc., 1960): "No one knows whether the nurs- 
ery rhyme about the Tweedle brothers had reference 
to this famous musical battle, or whether it was an 
older rhyme from which Byrom borrowed in the last 
line of his doggerel." 

Only time will tell if an even earlier citation than 
those mentioned here will ever be found of either 
the A or B version of the Tweedledum and Twee- 
dledee rhyme. The interested reader should contact 
me atjalindseth@aol.com with any comments or cor- 
rections. 

In conclusion, I would like to thank Jay Dillon, 
a New Jersey bookseller and skilled bibliographical 
sleuth whose findings I have incorporated in this essay, 
Peter Hirtle of Cornell, Anne Mouron and Stephen 
Arnold of the Bodleian Library, Diana Saulsbury of 
De Montfort University, LCSNA member Matt Dema- 
kos, LCSNA member Prof. Francine Abeles of Kean 
University, and Prof. Eugene Seneta at the University 
of Sydney, Australia. 




20 



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1^ 



First of all, welcome to our new 
members: Virginia Bernd, Bruce 
Einhorn, Charles Forester, Lauren 
Hynd, Yuka Koizumi, Marilyn Ma- 
cron, Chad Marine, William New- 
man, Adriana Peliano, and Sandra 
Strater. Our total membership has 
dipped a bit of late, but we have 29 
sustaining members, an increase 
over last year. We are very grateful 
to all our members for their sup- 
port. (If anyone is uncertain about 
continuing their membership 
during these difficult times, please 
contact me; don't just disappear 
into the night or slip down a rab- 
bit hole.) 



Have you seen our terrific new 
brochures? There should be one 
enclosed in this issue. Keep it 
for your collection if you must, 
but if you are inclined to help us 
publicize the LCSNA by posting a 
brochure in a choice site, we cer- 
tainly appreciate it. If you would 
like more brochures to distribute 
to potential new members, please 
drop me a note and I'll send you 
some. My addresses are on the 
copyright page. 



JABBERING 





noies pRoo) ihe lcsna secnerany 



One of the options on our dues 
form is to provide additional 
support for general expenses. 
Recently, one of our members in- 
quired as to what exactly we mean 
by that. Here's the scoop: As a vol- 
unteer organization, we are able 
to keep our costs quite low, but 
even so expenses for material and 
services can and often do exceed 
the amount covered by dues. This 
includes expenses for the Knight 
Letter, expenses for meetings, such 
as honoraria for speakers and 
sometimes room rental {gratis 



meeting space is getting harder 
and harder to come by) ; and par- 
ticularly in the last two years, extra 
costs involved in publishing the 
books that members have received 
free of cost (although all the de- 
sign and editorial work on these 
books was member-donated) . 
Questions from members about 
Society finances are always wel- 
come. All members are welcome at 
Board meetings as well; these are 
usually held the Friday evenings 
before the meetings. 



Jam Tomorrow 
(continued from KL 82) 
The Lewis Carroll Society (UK)'s 
summer meeting at Guildford is 
tentatively planned for July 15 to 
18, 2010, though the dates are not 
certain yet. Alice's Day in Oxford 
will be July 10, so it will be possible 
to take a very Carroll-centric Brit- 
ish vacation this year. As soon as I 
learn about the program for the 
summer meeting, I'll send out the 
information via the LCSNA Yahoo 
group. 



21 



^ 



^ 



Ravings fKom The Wmring Desk 



OF ANDREW SELLON 



-ii^ 



•^^ 






^ 



"^^^ iF^^y thanks to all who made the fall film-cen- 
M ^^ % trie meeting in Fort Lee, Newjersey, such 
M. m.a hit, including our gracious hosts, Tom 

Meyers and Nelson Page, and our excellent speakers, 
Richard Koszarski, Greg Bowers, Alan Tannenbaum, 
and David Schaefer. A special round of applause and 
thanks to David, who, with the able assistance of his 
wife, Mary, arranged the entire meeting. Well done, 
all! While I'm at it, let me rave in advance about our 
Spring 2010 meeting. It will be on Saturday, 
April 24, at the Rosenbach Museum and 
Library in Philadelphia. We're already lin- 
ing up a fantastic roster of presenters, and 
there's a special exhibit involved, so start 
making your plans now! 

Speaking of Alice films, I recently re- 
ceived an e-mail from a reporter at Glance 
magazine asking if I, as president of the 
Lewis Carroll Appreciation Society (ouch), 
would do a magazine interview about Lewis 
Carroll and the Alice books in light of the 
upcoming 2010 Tim Burton/Disney film. 
In accepting, I noted that we are in the 
midst of a mini Carroll renaissance in film 
and television, with a number of other high- 
profile pop-culture A/zV^ projects also in the 
works, including Marilyn Manson's long- 
threatened film about Carroll's romantic 
love for Alice, the film version of American McGee's 
ultraviolent Alice (based on the equally ultraviolent 
hit video game), and a new A/?V^inspired modern-day 
miniseries on the SyFy television channel. And there 
may well be more. 

The interviewer asked if she could have two weeks 
to read the two books and do additional background 
research before our chat. While I was saddened to 
hear that she had never read the books, I was de- 
lighted that she intended to do so as part of her as- 
signment. Two weeks later, we had what was projected 
to be a half-hour conversation. 

She started by asking when I first read the books, 
how long I'd been the President of the Lewis Carroll 
Appreciation Society (I gently corrected her again), 
and what we do. I responded, and then she asked 
what our Society thinks of the upcoming Burton film. 




I stopped myself from pointing out that it was a very 
looking-glass thing to ask one's opinion of a film that 
hasn't yet been released. I contented myself with say- 
ing that Mr. Burton has a brilliant visual imagination, 
well-suited to the stories, but that I wish he and Disney 
had decided to call their project something other than 
Alice in Wonderland. After all, Mr. Burton is using Car- 
rollian characters from both books (common enough 
in adaptions), but has apparently come up with a new 
plot that is entirely his own invention. Or 
almost entirely — in my opinion, elements 
of it bear a striking resemblance to Tommy 
Kovac's Wonderland comics. 

For anyone who hasn't already seen 
the basic film information online. Burton's 
Alice is a nineteen-year-old blonde (Alice 
may be the only Hollywood starlet whose 
hair color apparently never changes!). 
She runs away from an unwanted engage- 
ment, falls down the rabbit hole again, and 
finds herself expected to act as the White 
Queen's champion in a battle against the 
ostensibly evil Red Queen (something of a 
mash-up of the Queen of Hearts and the 
Red Queen). 

So yes, the film is about Alice, and 
she ends up in Wonderland (with Look- 
ing-Glass Land thrown in as well). But it 
seems to me that they could have managed a new title 
that wouldn't lead the uninformed to think Burton's 
story was Carroll's. I then assured her that we have a 
great relationship with the Disney company, that we 
are eager to see Mr. Burton's project, and have high 
hopes it will display an appropriately Carrollian spirit. 
The interviewer next asked the inevitable ques- 
tion about Mr. Dodgson's attentions to little girls, and 
how we feel when we see articles proclaiming him a 
pervert or pedophile. I responded that I think it's a 
pity some people are too lazy to do their homework. I 
also good-naturedly noted that the media often bear 
some responsibility, as they have a tendency to latch 
onto anything that can be misconstrued for fun and 
profit, and that it's a common cultural mistake to 
judge behavior from a past time by the questionable 
standards of our own. She got the point. 



22 



The interviewer was intrigued to hear about the 
boat rides, Alice's Adventures Underground, the social 
politics and rigid class structure of the time, and how 
Mr. Dodgson played a key role in giving many, many 
children a healthy sense of self-respect not always af- 
forded them in shuttling between mothers and gov- 
ernesses. She, of course, had no idea that he often 
paid for various types of lessons for his child friends, 
and that he strongly supported their right to work in 
wholesome theatrical endeavors. She asked what Mr. 
Dodgson himself would think of Tim Burton's film. 
After a brief disclaimer, I ventured that he would 
probably have appreciated the visual creativity im- 
mensely. I also observed that Mr. Dodgson was well 
aware that stories need alteration when moved from 
one form to another, as he had himself consulted on 
the first authorized stage adaptation of the first book. 
I brought the other upcoming projects back into the 
talk by saying that I thought Mr. Dodgson would have 
been surprised and pleased by the ongoing world- 
wide popularity of his works. I added that I thought 
(speaking for myself) he would have been troubled 
by any rendering that portrayed him in an overly ro- 
mantic relationship with the child Alice, and that he 
would likely have been flat-out horrified by McGee's 
version of Alice, with her homicidal tendencies and 
an upside-down cross around her neck. 

We discussed the question of when a new artwork 
respects and even illuminates the original inspiration, 
and when it does the original a disservice. We agreed 
that with art, the answer may always lie in the eye of 
the beholder. Her last question: What would we want 
people to take away from seeing the Burton film? I 
said I hoped they would be sufficiently entertained 
to go straight to the bookstore, or pick up their e- 
reader of choice, and read the original books, and 
maybe even The Hunting of the Snark. I noted that how- 
ever delightful (or frightful) a new Alic^themed proj- 



ect might be, people will be missing out if they don't 
read the originals, unexpurgated. 

Before we said our goodbyes, I asked the yoting 
woman if I could wear the interviewer's cap for a mo- 
ment. She graciously acquiesced. I asked what she 
thought of the books, having just read them for the 
first time. She said the books were far more sophisti- 
cated than she'd imagined, filled with elements she 
had never run across in any adaptation, and that she 
was fascinated. She loved the occasionally mordant 
humor, and was touched by the hints of melancholy 
in the second book. What started out as a half-hour 
chat ended up lasting almost two hours, and the inter- 
viewer went off overflowing with connections she was 
eager to explore. I have no idea how much of what 
we discussed will make it into print. (For instance, I 
have since given basically the same interview for an 
article that appeared in the online version of the Wall 
Street Journal on October 9, 2009, and only my con- 
cern about Burton's choice of title made it into the 
article!) But if and when the article appears, I hope 
that it will respect the original works and their cre- 
ator, and that the interviewer's own joy of discovery 
will shine through. The magazine is called Glance, but 
I hope the article will give readers a more in-depth 
look at Mr. Dodgson. After all, that's why we're here. 



/, 




'^/. 




23 






"7^ 



ALL MUST HAVE PRIZES 

JOEL BIRENBAUM 



GREETINGS FROM WONDERLAND 

This issue I am going to write about some- 
thing that nobody collects. That was to be my 
opening statement, until I did an Internet search 
on "greeting card collector" and found, among other 
things, a collection of 71,000 greeting cards at the 
Enoch Pratt Library in Baltimore, Maryland. So, I will 
instead write about something very few people col- 
lect, Alice in Wonderland greeting cards. While many 
people collect postcards, and there are postcard 
clubs, and postcard shows, I have never heard of the 
same for greeting cards. 





Bi-fold horizontally opening card - "Garden of Birth- 
day Wishes, " Sunrise, code SFB 6529 

I know of Alice postcards from the Victorian era, 
but I don't know of any greeting cards of that vintage. 
As far as I can tell, Alice greeting cards may not have 
existed until as late as 1929. Alfred Reginald Allen 
had Carrollian Christmas cards printed by the Frank- 
lin Printing Company starting in 1929 and continu- 
ing through 1934. Of the six cards, four were from 
the Alice books and two were Snarks. The Alice cards 
had a Tenniel illustration on the front and an accom- 
panying book passage on the inside. 

As Afe collectors, I am sure we have all received 
Alice-related greeting cards over the years, and have 
discarded nary a one of them. This could rightly be 
considered a collection; a true collection would con- 
sist of mint cards in mint envelopes, but let us avoid 
that discussion. I have seen birthday, Christmas, Eas- 
ter, Halloween, invitation, announcement, blank. 






and no-occasion Alice cards. Belated birthday 
cards with the White Rabbit exclaiming, "I'm 
Late! I'm Late!" are certainly prevalent. I would 
confidently venture a guess that there are more 
greeting cards with Tenniel illustrations or illustra- 
tions after Tenniel than any other type. Surprisingly, 
Disney cards take a distant second place. 

In the spirit of full disclosure, I will admit to hav- 
ing 145 Alice greeting cards in my collection. The 
number is so low only because I refrain from buy- 
ing most Tenniel cards. My preference is to collect 
cards illustrated by other artists, which is a means to 
get alternate interpretations without paying the price 
of a book or piece of art. I even collect a few cards 
that weren't really meant to be Alices, but should have 
been. You know what I mean. 




Pop-up card -Japanese, Maho Mizuno, 2009 



Here is a list of nonstandard cards to give you a 
taste of what exists: 

Shaped multi-fold-out - Alice and Tweedle 

valentine, no company, c. 1930s 
Shaped multi-fold-out card - Alice looking in at 

the Tweedles valentine, no company, c. 1930s 
Octagonal peepshow card - Dodo 

Designs, England, 1980 
Octagonal peepshow card (a larger version 

of the preceding item) - United 

Nations Designs Ltd., London, 1983 
Pop-up card - "Birthday Tea Party," Popshots, Inc., 

Westport, Connecdcut, c. 1980s, code PS-147 



24 



Mask card (can be worn as a mask) - 

Cheshire Cat, Cardtricks, 1988 
Shaped multi-fold-out - "Tea Party," 

Portal, 1989, code SRBT082 
Pop-up card - "Open Me," Plum 

Graphics, 1990, code X02 
Pop-up card - "Humpty Dumpty," 

Cottage Industries/Macmillan, 

C.1994, code ALICE 725 
Pop-up card - "Looking Glass," 

Cottage Industries/Macmillan, 

c.1994, code ALICE 726 
Pop-up card - "Off with her Head," 

Cottage Industries/Macmillan, 

c.1994, code ALICE 727 
Pop-up card - "Tweedle Dum and Tweedle 

Dee," Cottage Industries/Macmillan, 

c.1994, code ALICE 728 
Pop-up card - "Down the rabbit hole," 

Cottage Industries/Macmillan, 

c.1994. Code ALICE 729 
Pop-up card - "Queen of Hearts," 

Cottage Industries/Macmillan, 

c.1994, code ALICE 730 
Bookmark card - Mad Tea Party and Tweedles 

(the Tweedles can be removed and used as 

a bookmark). Tango Cards, 1996, code 127 
Bi-fold horizontally opening card - 

Alice in the Garden of Live Flowers, 

Hallmark, code HK 694-0 
Bi-fold vertically opening card - Alice and 

Cheshire Cat, Hallmark, codeJKB 161 K 
Bi-fold horizontally opening card - "A Garden of 

Birthday Wishes," Sunrise, code SFB 6529 



Lift-the-flap card - "I'm Late," Gibson Greetings, 

code E-8 
Pop-up card - Elaborate Mad Tea 

Party, Santoro Graphics 
Rocker card - Alice and the Red Queen, 
Santoro Graphics, 2001, code RR23 
Swing card - Alice, Mad Hatter, White Rab- 
bit, and Dormouse on a movable swing, 
Santoro Graphics, 2003, code SC49 
Pop-up card - Alice, Robert Sabuda, 2005 
Pop-up card - Cheshire Cat, Robert Sabuda, 2005 
Pop-up card - White Rabbit, Robert Sabuda, 2005 
Pop-up card - Painter Card, Robert Sabuda, 2005 
Pop-up card - "Wonderland," Japanese, 

Active Corporation, c. 2005, code GF-09 
Pop-up card -Japanese, Maho Mizuno, 2009 

Thanks go to Yoshiyuki Momma, Byron Sewell, and 
Edward Wakeling for the helpful information they 
so kindly provided. 




Shaped muUi-foldoiit - Tea Party, Portal, 1989, code SRBT082 





Pop-up card - "Queen oj Hearts, " Cottage Industries/ 
Macmillan, c. 1 994, code ALICE 730 



Pop-up card - Elaborate Mad Tea Party, Santoro 
Graphics 



25 



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Katharine "Kitty" Minehart 
1912 -May 19, 2009 

Remembered by Barbara Felicetti 

Kitty Minehart, enthusiastic Carrolhan, actress, and artistic director of the 
Germantown Theater Guild, died in May at a Massachusetts hospice. She 
was almost 97 years old. Those who attended the Spring 1996 meeting 
of the LCSNA in Philadelphia will remember the wonderful theater (an 
eighteenth-century converted stone barn), the delightful grounds, and 
Kitty's extensive Alice collection. Both the Rosenbach and Please Touch 
Museums have acquired parts of her collection. 

Kitty's devotion to all things A/?c^ stemmed from her work as a theater 
director of the Guild. In the 1970s, when Guild productions became more 
focused on children's theater, she shared the worlds of Dickens, Shake- 
speare, and Carroll with young people from Philadelphia-area schools 
and at regional theaters around the country. She staged "The Wasp in a 
Wig" at the Spring 1996 meeting {KL 52). Passionate about social justice, 
Kitty was awarded the Barrymore Award in 1996 as "a pioneer in the con- 
cept of creating interracial theater." Kitty loved the LCSNA meetings and 
was an enthusiastic member for many years. She is survived by her daugh- 
ter, Pam Courtleigh, and stepdaughter, Alexandra Lounsbery. Memorial 
donations may be made to the Actors Fund of America, 729 Seventh Ave., 
NewYork, NY 10019. 



^-^ 



^^ 



'^^ 



Virginia Davis McGhee 

1918-August 15,2009 

Remembered by Dan Singer 

Virginia Davis, the curly-haired four-year-old who starred in the young Walt Disney's early prototype film Alice's 
Wonderland (1923), passed away in her home in California at the age of ninety. The silent short was not based 
on the text of the Lewis Carroll novels but on the idea of a child suddenly finding herself in another world. The 
Fleischer Brothers' Out of the Inkwell series had featured animated characters in the real world; Disney's reversed 
the notion. Young Miss Davis pantomimed actions and reactions against a 
white cloth draped over a billboard in a vacant lot in Kansas City, Missouri, 
without rehearsals or retakes, Walt frantically barking instructions to her from 
behind the camera. The cartoon characters were drawn in later by animator 
Ub Iwerks. 

When the fledgling Disney Company went bankrupt, the short film was the 
only asset Walt was allowed to keep. Upon relocation to Hollywood, California, 
Walt started production on an Alice in Cartoonland series based on the pilot 
film. Miss Davis's family was entreated to move to Los Angeles so that Virginia 
could star in the series. After the first year of thirteen shorts, Disney proposed 
a drastic reduction in salary; Miss Davis bowed out, to be replaced by a series 
of other child stars, until the New York distributor finally dumped the series in 
favor of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, the precursor to the mouse character that 
eventually brought the Disney Company solid success. 

Miss Davis had minor careers as an actress and a realtor in Southern 
California, and in her last decade received much attention from fans as 
Disney's first star. 




Sn iWemoriam 
»• ♦>"<« ■« 




Rosella S. Howe 
(1912 - September 10, 2009) 

Remembered by August A. Imholtz,Jr. 

With great sadness we report the death of longtime LCSNA member Rosella Senders 
Howe. Rosella attended the Cambridge Latin School and Radcliffe College and then, 
after a brief period at Macy's Department Store responding to complaint letters, studied 
dance with modern dance pioneer Charles Weidman in New York. She abandoned mod- 
ern dance, however, when one day she found herself sharing a dressing room with an 
elephant in Providence, Rhode Island. (In spite of the elephant experience, or perhaps 
because of it, all her adult life she was a staunch Democrat who supported and advised 
Barney Frank and many other politicians.) 

She married Hartley Howe, a friend of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and they spent their first years together in 
Washington, D.C., during World War II, and later moved to Madison, Wisconsin. Hartley was a professor of journalism 
at the University of Wisconsin, where Rosella finished a degree in linguistics and studied Japanese, becoming a poet 
and teacher. 

She was, from the early 1980s, a keen member of the LCSNA who brought great enthusiasm and her delightful 
wit, always expressed in perfect Cambridge accent, to our meetings. At our fall 1993 meeting at Harvard University's 
Houghton Library, Rosella delivered an illustrated and most entertaining talk on "The Harcourt Amory Lewis Carroll 
Collection: Its History and Content." A few years later when Rosella and Hartley were in Washington for a few days, 
Clare and I took them to the Library of Congress. I had a stack pass at that time, and so we brought them into the 
stacks of the Jefferson Building, the main building of the library, where Rosella had quite a bit of fun nipping off here 
and there in the ranges of shelves. She said she wished she could stay there forever. We wish she could have, for all 
those who knew her now miss her greatly. 



^-^ 



^^ 



^-^ 



Alan White 
1943 -October 25, 2009 

Remembered by Mark Richards 

A beloved and very active participant in the Lewis Carroll Society (UK), Alan served a term 
as its chairman beginning in 1993 and was its secretary from 2000 until his retirement this 
year; he was the first editor of the Lewis Carroll Review (1996); and from 1998 until recently, 
the editor of Bandersnatch and an editorial board member of The Carrollian. 

Alan worked hard to raise the standard of everything we did; he made us more open 
to others' points of view, but, above all, he shared his sense of humor with us. His ready wit 
kept us entertained over the years and his light-hearted heckling at meetings was some- 
thing we looked forward to, rather than feared. Our society became friendlier and more 
enjoyable as a result. 

Although he often claimed he was not a "scholar" ("They only invite me along to 
lower the tone"), he was always studying, had a wide knowledge of the arts, and was one of 
the most well-read people 1 know. 
Alan was an avid collector, but one who was remarkably generous in helping others develop their collections 
as well. One day, some years ago, I spotted a book on my shelves which I did not recognize. Eventually I was able 
to deduce that Alan had left it there for me, without my knowledge, at a committee meeting, while I was out of the 
room— some weeks before I noticed it! Over the years, other things appeared on our shelves as well: that was Alan's 
generosity and also his sense of humor. 

Alan was a librarian by profession, mainly at Hertford Library, and served his community by volunteering at the 
town museum and local schools, even serving a year as the mayor of Hertford. The last few years were difficult for him, 
but he was brave and he continued to do his best for everv^one, right to the end. Our thoughts go to his wife, Myra and 
children, Harriet and Will. 




,^, 
"?^ 







Carrollian Notes 



•2^ 



Alice's Adventures on 
the Yellow Woodpecker Ranch 

By Adriana Peliano, 
translated by Peter Price 

Alice reached Brazil thanks to 
the writer Monteiro Lobato 
(1882-1948). He translated Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland into Bra- 
zilian Portuguese for the first time 
in 1931, with illustrations by A. L. 
Bowley, and Through the Looking- 
Glass in 1933, with illustrations by 
Tenniel. However, the presence of 
Alice in Lobato's work goes much 
further as she visits some of his 
stories and interacts with his char- 
acters in an intertextual game of 
unusual scope. 

It is well known that the origi- 
nal Alice books contain cultural 
characteristics of Victorian Eng- 
land. In his adaptations, Lobato 
transforms and relocates 
these characteristics to the 
Brazilian reality of his day. 
He often chose to simply not 
translate the puns and lan- 
guage games of Carroll, and 
replaced the parodies pres- 
ent in the work with parodies 
of Brazilian texts recogniz- 
able to the Brazilian public. 
He inserted elements from 
Brazilian national culture, 
creating a Brazilian setting 
with an Alice who recites 
classic poems from Brazilian 
literature and has girlfriends 
called Cleo and Zuleica. 

The adaptation of the 
Alice books was part of a 
broader literary project of 
Lobato's. A complex per- 
sonality considered by many 
the most important Brazilian 






children's writer of all time, Lo- 
bato criticized the trend of his day 
to copy the latest Parisian fashions 
in art, music, and literature. He 
translated innumerable English, 
German, and American works 
such as Peter Pan, the Brothers 
Grimm, Robinson Crusoe, Tom Saw- 
yer, Huckleberry Finn, Robin Hood, 
and Gulliver's Travels, among oth- 
ers. What is more, the incompa- 
rable adventure made possible by 
reading Lobato's children's books 
provided Brazilian children with 
a certain cultural globalization. 
His writings work as hypertexts 
do today, inviting characters from 
various tales, fables, and mytholo- 
gies to visit his stories. Lobato's 
vast works for children were later 
brought together in a collection of 
17 volumes. 




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Illustration by Belmonte for Memorias da Emilia, 1936. 
Alice (very much resembling A. L. Bowley 's, who illustrated 
Lobato's 1931 translation) meets the angel among English 
children. 



With the publication of Nariz- 
inho arrebitado (The Girl with the 
Turned-Up Nose) in 1920, we may 
say that children's literature in 
Brazil and even in South America 
was born. Previously, we had had 
books like Contos da Carochinha 
(Tales of Mrs. Carochinha, 1896), 
the first work of children's litera- 
ture produced in Brazil, which 
collected tales by Perrault, Grimm, 
and Andersen, fables, legends, 
and tales to set an example, with 
moralistic content predominating. 
From a critical and metalinguistic 
angle, the same Dona Carochinha 
(a little story-telling cockroach) 
tells us in one of Lobato's books: 
"I've noticed that many char- 
acters in my stories are already 
bored with living their whole lives 
trapped inside them. They want 
something new. They're talk- 
ing of running away to get 
involved in new adventures."' 
Narizinho arrebitado would 
later be expanded, giving 
rise to the classic Reinagoes 
de Narizinho (Adventures 
of Little Nose) in 1931, the 
same year as Lobato's trans- 
lation of Wonderland. This 
work includes the first sto- 
ries set on the Ranch of the 
Yellow Woodpecker, where 
most of Lobato's children's 
books take place. On this 
small imaginary ranch in the 
Brazilian countryside live 
the characters of the ranch 
owner Dona Benta (Mrs. 
Benta), her grandchildren 
Narizinho and Pedrinho, 
and the cook Tia Nastacia 
(Aunt Anastasia) . These char- 



28 



acters are complemented by 
beings created or animated 
by the imaginations of the 
children in the story: the 
irreverent and mocking doll 
Emilia (Emily), the aristo- 
cratic and bookish corncob 
doll Visconde de Sabugosa 
(Viscount Corncob) , the cow 
Mocha, the donkey Consel- 
heiro (Counselor), the pig 
Rabico (Little Tail), and the 
rhinoceros Quindim (the 
name of a sweet Brazilian 
dessert) . However, for the 
most part, the adventures 
take place in other settings: 
in a fantasy world invented 
by the children or in stories 
told by Dona Benta in the 
early evening. 

In Carroll's work, it is 
known that the episode of 
Humpty Dumpty, like those of 
the Knave of Hearts, the twins 
Tweedledum and Tweedledee, 
and the Lion and the Unicorn, 
develops an incident recounted 
in a known children's song of his 
time.-' Similarly, Lobato brought 
together characters of almost all 
origins and media existent in his 
day. We have noted the presence 
of figures related to mythology 
(Hercules, Medusa, Perseus, the 
Minotaur), tales (Snow White, 
Little Red Riding Hood, Sinbad, 
Blue Beard, The Ugly Duckling), 
the theatre ( The Blue Bird and 
The Phantom of the Opera), cinema 
(Tom Mix and Felix the Cat) , the 
Bible (Saint Peter, Saint John, 
Judas, Cain, and Jonas), oral tradi- 
tion (Saci and Pedro Malasarte), 
history (Plato, the Marquess of 
Santos, and Hippocrates), Brazil- 
ian personalities (Cornelio Pires, 
the clown Eduardo das Neves, and 
Lampiao), and fables (the ant and 
the grasshopper, the animals and 
the plague, the wolf and the lamb, 
the two doves, and the milkmaid) . 
We have also noted quotations 
from children's books {Pinocchio, 
Peter Pan, and Wonderland).^ 

On the Ranch, all the great nar- 
ratives are reviewed, modified, and 




The Map of the World of Wonders " by J. U. Campos, from 
Monteiro Lobato 's A penna de papagaio ( The Parrot Teather) , 
Sao Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1930. The names have 
been translated into English by Adriana Peliano. 



adapted to the feelings and imagi- 
nation of the characters. In this 
way, Carochinha is a storyteller 
criticized for being stale. There 
is criticism of the lack of variety 
with which childhood is treated. 
The characters themselves want 
"novelty" and "new adventures." 
As Pedrinho says, "If Tom Thumb 
ran away it's because the story is 
stale. If the story is stale, we have 
to throw it away and buy another 
one. I've had this idea for a long 
time: to make all the characters 
run away from the old stories to 
come here and make up other 
adventures with us."^ 

For Narizinho to get to the 
marvelous Kingdom of Clear Wa- 
ters in Reinagoes de Narizinho, she 
first must cross a grotto that she 
has never seen near the Ranch 
before and that frightens her, at 
first. We have here a true portal 
of passage in the mold of Alice's 
falling down the rabbit hole or 
climbing through the mirror. At 
the same dme, in the first edition 
of Narizinho arrebitado ( 1921 ) , the 
adventure of Narizinho and Lucia 
ends with their waking up before 
replying to Principe Escamado's 
(the Scaled Prince) proposal of 
marriage to a fish from the King- 
dom of Clear Waters. This revela- 



tion that "everything was 
nothing more than a beauti- 
ful dream" places the narra- 
tive in a space where "logic 
disciplines fantasy."' Because 
the little girl was dreaming, 
the presence of the marvel- 
ous in the everyday world is 
dissolved. 

However, in the defini- 
tive version, expanded and 
renamed Reinagoes de Nariz- 
inho, we can confirm the 
dilution of boundaries be- 
tween reality, the marvelous, 
and a total fusion of both. 
So much so that, in Reina- 
goes, Narizinho returns from 
her first trip to the Kingdom 
of Clear Waters "by a very 
strong gale, that enveloped 
the little girl and the doll 
Emilia, dragging them from 
the bottom of the ocean to the 
bank of the orchard stream. They 
were in Dona Benta's Ranch once 
again. ""^ It is neither stated that the 
little girl was dreaming, nor that 
her return to everyday reality was 
due to waking up. 

In this work, the characters 
from Wonderland, including 
Alice, visit the Ranch of the Yel- 
low Woodpecker on two principal 
occasions: the first time they go to 
participate in a big party and later 
to watch a circus show prepared 
by the people of the Ranch. Later, 
an invisible character, Peninha, 
whom everybody suspects of being 
Peter Pan, arrives and shows the 
children the map of Wonderland, 
clarifying that it is located every- 
where. 

"Wonderland is very very old. 
It came into existence when 
the first child was born and will 
continue while there's still one 
single old man on earth." 
"Is it easy to get to?" 
"Easy as pie or impossible. It 
depends. For whoever has imag- 
ination, it's really easy."" 

It's essential to note that on this 
map, Pedrinho finds the Ranch of 
the Yellow Woodpecker itself, as 



29 



well as the sea of pirates, the land 
of the thousand and one nights, 
Robinson Crusoe's island, Lilli- 
put, Neverland, and the castle of 
Sleeping Beauty. Wonderland and 
Alice's house are also on the map, 
in a truly intertextual cartography. 

In Memorias da Emilia (Emily's 
Memoirs, IQSG),** a ship called 
Wonderland arrives at the ranch 
bringing Alice and Peter Pan, 
along with several English chil- 
dren, to see an angel fallen from 
heaven (a reference to the book 
Viagem ao ceu [Trip to Heaven], 
1932). Of all the children, it's 
Alice who asks the angel a series 
of questions, curious about life 
in heaven. Later, enchanted by 
life on the ranch, she eats Aunt 
Nastacia's "adorable" httle cakes 
and asks for the recipe. Aunt Nas- 
tacia asks Emilia if the little Eng- 
lish girl speaks Portuguese. Emilia 
confirms this by saying, "Alice has 
already been translated into Portu- 
guese." In the introduction to his 
adaptation of Wonderland, Lobato 
announces: "Brazilian children 
are going to read the story of Alice 
through Narizinho's doing. This 
little girl insisted so much on see- 
ing her in Portuguese (Narizinho 
doesn't know English yet), that 
there was nothing else to be done, 
in spite of its being, as we say, an 
untranslatable work.^ 

If the fairy-tale characters in Re- 
ina^oes de Narizinho showed dissat- 
isfaction with always living out the 
same adventures, when they come 
to the Ranch their stories are mod- 
ified, subverted. In this work, the 
characters from Wonderland move 
to a plot of land neighboring the 
ranch, but on Dona Benta's condi- 
tion that they don't trespass on 
the ranch or jump over the fence. 
These terms are accepted, and a 
week later the characters from the 
World of Fable begin their move 
to Dona Benta's New Lands. "But 
they didn't come just for a visit, 
no; they came armed and with 
luggage and with their castles and 
palaces to be able to live there 
for the rest of their lives."'" Alice 



also comes "with the whole crowd: 
Tweedledum, the Cheshire Cat, 
the White Rabbit, the mock 
turde..."" 

In a more recent adaptation of 
Lobato 's work, the characters from 
Yellow Woodpecker Ranch go 
visiting several stories. Wonderland 
among them.'- Emilia, the Vis- 
count, Pedrinho, and Narizinho 
follow in Alice's footsteps and 
retell her adventures adapted to 
the perspective of the Ranch char- 
acters, both commenting on and 
interacting with the story. 

In Lobato 's book A chave do ta- 
manho (The Size Switch, 1942), the 
ranch characters are confronted 
by the reality of war. Emilia, full 
of initiative, reaches the House of 
Switches, where all the switches 
that "control and gauge everything 
in the world" are." However, none 
of these gives any hint as to what 
they open, so Emilia chooses one 
at random. It isn't the key of the 
war. It's the switch key that, instan- 
taneously, reduces all humanity 
to the size of insects. This altera- 
tion in size reminds Emilia and 
us directly of Alice's adventures: 
"Something happened to me that 
sometimes happened to Alice in 
Wonderland. At times, she be- 
came so enormous she couldn't 
fit in houses; at times, she became 
the size of a mosquito. I became 
tiny."'* Unlike Wonderland, how- 
ever, all humanity shrinks like 
Emilia and from that time on must 
create a society with new rules, a 
direct criticism of world events. 

For love of Brazil and child- 
hood, Lobato created a children's 
literature where fictional Brazilian 
children and characters from Bra- 
zilian folklore live on equal stand- 
ing alongside the most celebrated 
characters of universal culture (as 
in the case of Alice), which is to 
say, in relationships of deep affec- 
tion and complicity, but without 
the paralyzing reverence that im- 
pedes new ways of being, thinking, 



and creating. Lobato's intention, 
we may say, was to make child 
readers critical of the world. To 
achieve this, he created a charac- 
teristically Brazilian literature for 
Brazilian children without giving 
up the treasures of other cultures. 
On the contrary, he knew how 
to gulp down whatever was most 
powerful in foreign cultures and 
introduce it into his own litera- 
ture. In this way, he contributed to 
the building of the country, for, in 
his own famous phrase, "A country 
is made with men and books." 

' Loboto, Monteiro. Reinafoes de 
Narizinho. Sao Paulo: editora 
brasiliense, 1956. 6a. ed., p. 11. 

- Carroll, Lewis. Gardner, Martin. 
ALICE: Edi^do Comentada. Rio de 
Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed., 2002. 

' Ribeiro, Maria Augusta Hermen- 
garda Wurthmann. "Guia de leitura 
de reinagoes de Narizinho." UNESP- 
Reitoria: Nucleo de Ensino do 
Campus de Rio Claro, 2005. 
Pesquisa de iniciagao cientifica, 
p. 259. 

* Reinagoes de Narizinho, p. 53. 

"' Castello Branco, Thatty de Aguiar. 
"O maravilhoso e o fantastico na 
literatura infantil de Monteiro 
Lobato." Rio de Janeiro: Pontificia 
Universidade Catolica do Rio de 
Janeiro. Departamento de Letras, 
2007. Dissertagao (mestrado), p. 29. 

** Reinagoes de Narizinho, p. 20. 

' Reinagoes de Narizinho, p. 254. 

"^ Lobato, Monteiro. Memorias da 
Emilia. Sao Paulo: Companhia 
Editora National, 1936. 

' Carroll, Lewis. Alice no Pais das 
Maravilhas. Tradugao e adaptagao: 
Monteiro Lobato. Editora 
brasiliense, 1960. 9a. ed, p. 9. 
'" Lobato, Monteiro. O Picapau 
Amarelo. Sao Paulo: editora 
brasiliense, 1968. 13a. ed, p. 22. 
" O Picapau Amarelo, p. 24. 
'^ Poppovic, Pedro Paulo, (ed.) "Livro 
de Historias: baseado na obra de 
Monteiro Lobato." Rio de Janeiro: 
Rio Grafica Editora, 1979. 
' ' Lobato, Monteiro. A Chave do 
Tamanho. Sao Paulo: editora 
brasiliense, 2003, p. 9. 

'"* A Chave do Tamanho, p. 1 1 . 



30 



OLA, brazil! 

Artist Adriana Peliano, author of 
the preceding article, is putting 
together the Lewis Carroll Society 
of Brazil/Sociedade Lewis Carroll 
do Brasil, which "intends to pro- 
mote the interchange of ideas with 
or without sense, the realization of 
absurd events, the maintenance of 
a virtual art gallery to sell original 
works, the production of art (illus- 
trations, photographs, fashion 
design, animations) as well as 
music and theater performances, 
the making of an elaborate map 
documenting past Carrollian pro- 
ductions (publications, transla- 
tions, illustrations, visual arts, 
theater) in Brazil, and to produce 
a magazine, Alicinagoes/ Alice 
nations, which will be in poster 
format, contain both art and the- 
ory, and come out four times a 
year." Their blog can be found at 
http://alicenations.blogspot.com, 
and they can be reached at ali- 
cenations@hotmail.com. Most of 
their output is in Portuguese; 



some texts are also in English. 
Members of the Society will be of 
two types: regular (at no cost), 
who may see the blog and buy 
items individually; and premium, 
who pay a fee of us $50 per year 
that entides them to automatically 
receive all the Society's publica- 
tions, collectibles, and posters. 



FARNAN STUDIOS 

William T. Farnan and his late wife 
established Farnan Studios in St. 
Louis in 1969, specializing in hand- 
lettered and illuminated manu- 
scripts, hmited edition books and 




prints, and bas-relief sculptures. 
In 1972, the studio moved to San 
Francisco and has been serving 
corporate and private clients since. 

Casts of the fine bas-relief of 
Lewis Carroll he created in 1992 
are still available for purchase. 
Each of the 10'/2 x 10-inch pieces 
from the edition of 100 is num- 
bered and signed. The self-hang- 
ing bas-relief is cast in resin-based 
Forton MG and comes with an 
easel for bookshelf display. The 
cost is $150. 

He is also offering an artist's 
book in an edition of 250 of the 
poem "The Walrus and the Car- 
penter," hand-lettered, illustrated, 
illuminated in gold, printed, hand- 
bound, numbered, and signed. 
The book measures 7 x 8'/4 inches 
and costs $35. He is planning soon 
to release a companion "Jabber- 
wocky" in a similar edition and 
format, based on a larger print/ 
hand-bound book he produced in 
1980. 

Contact: www.farnanstudios. 
com; williamtfarnan@mac.com; 
(415) 771-9600; 1276 La Playa, San 
Francisco, CA 94122. 





It is vital to the lifeblood of our Society to have a 
wider membership base. You will find enclosed a 
copy of our new membership brochure; please 
pass it on to someone you think might consider join- 
ing our Society. And if you happen to be going to a 
meeting, reading, screening, conference, class, pro- 
duction, book fair, or the like at which you think it 
would be appropriate to distribute copies or leave 
them on a table (check with organizers if unsure), 
please write or email our secretary, Clare Imholtz, 
well in advance to request a packet. Her contact in- 
formation is on the inside front cover. 
Thank you! 




■^ 



^#- 



c^, 



e CyliiiPitiPta or tnc \)uazK 



-e^ 



WILLIAM HARTSTON 






From the (London) DmTy fx/^rie^i "Beachcomber" 
column, September 18, 2008: 

. . . Carroll's poem, The Hunting of the Snark, you 
will recall, was about a crew of sailors, led by the 
Bellman, hunting for the mythical snark, but ever 
fearful it might turn out to be one of the fatal 
boojum variety. The chaps at the Large Hadron 
Collider at CERN, the European Organisation 
for Nuclear Research near Geneva, on the other 
hand, are looking for elementary particles called 
quarks, which was a term coined by the physicist 
Murray Gell-Mann. Their great fear is that the 
hunt for the possibly mythical Higgs boson may 
destroy the universe, which would be rotten luck 
for all concerned . . . 

"Just the place for a quark," the Gell-Mann cried, 
As he landed his crewmen at CERN, 
"An underground tunnel with protons inside. 
Let's crash them and see what we learn. 

"Just the place for a Quark! I have said it twice: 
Come on, there's plenty to do. 
Just the place for a quark! I have said it thrice: 
Let's see if Higgs boson is true." 

The crew was complete: it included a chap 

Who'd met a Higgs boson in Spain, 

Or he may have just dreamt it while having a nap. 

But he'd know if he saw one again. 

The Gell-Mann addressed them when all were 

aboard: 
"I'm going to turn on the switch. 
So keep your eyes peeled lads, we need to record, 
Events that could make us all rich. 
"Remember that what we're hunting is a quark 
That's known as the boson of Higgs, 
It makes a dull noise like a sea lion's bark. 
Its tail is quite bent like a pig's." 

But one young crew member looked quite 

unconvinced. 
And asked, "Are you really quite sure, 
That if it goes wrong we won't find ourselves minced. 
And spat out in bits on the floor?" 




"Is that," said the Gell-Mann, contempt in his voice, 
"What lecturers teach you in college? 
Forget health and safety, take risks and rejoice, 
At pushing the boundaries of knowledge!" 

They set off to find the one missing quark. 
That might prove their theories correct. 
That boson elusive that hid in the dark, 
To gain everybody's respect. 

They sought it with thimbles, they sought it 

with care; 
They pursued it by day and by night; 
"We'll ne'er catch the blighter," they said 

with despair; 
It almost moves faster than light." 

But just as the project was nearing its goal, 
And the mood was pure rapturous glee. 
The universe fell down a gaping black hole, 
For the quark was a boson, you see. 



32 



"This is like Jabberwocky, which 
was the language spoken in Alice in 
Wonderland . . . Through the Looking 
Glass." 

Rep. Anthony Weiner of New York 
commenting on the health care 
reform debate during an Energy 
and Commerce Committee hearing 
on July 16. 



m 

"I could picture it perfectly. It was 
a wide grassy slope that you could 
roll down and then come to a stop 
at a beautiful stone wall you could 
walk on, with a little gate you 
could go through just like Alice in 
Wonderland." 

From Strawberry Hill by Mary Ann 
Hoberman, Little Brown, 2009. 



"Like Alice in her maze, I walked 
in one direction and Luke in the 
other, in and out of narrow aisles." 
FromThe Late, Lamented Molly 
Marx, by Sally Koslow, Ballantine 
Books, New York, 2009. 



-MM 

"Much of the movie's pleasure 
comes from the utter ease with 
which Ms. Wintour plays the 
Red Queen of fashion and orders 
off with their heads (and even 
tummies)." 

From Manohla Dargis 's review 
of The September Issue, in 
The New York Times, August 
28, 2009. 



Mr. Rochester, in Jane Eyre, refers 
to himself as a "spoonie" for "ruin- 
ing himself in the received style" 
over Celine Varens. 



m 

"'Faster, faster,' cried Anne, be- 
coming the Red Queen, and I was 
whirled along like Alice in the 
picture." 

From Yesterday Morning, 
A Very English Childhood by 
Diana Athil, Granta Publications, 
London, 2002. 




"She met a large number of birds, 
there was the magpie, canaries, 
among others. It was pleasant talk- 
ing to them until Alice mentioned 
Dinah, her cat, when the Mother 
Canary called out to her children 
— 'Come away, my dears, it's high 
time you were all in bed.' . . . She 
put her arms through the window. 
It was seen by Pat the White Rab- 
bit, and Bill, the Big Puppy." 
From Alice in Wonderland, 
a small booklet printed circa 
1 940, published by Samuel Lowe 
Company of Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
which contains a five-page retelling 
as well as one of ''The Pied Piper. " 
The pictures include a group of 
chicks, but whether chickens or 
canaries it is impossible to tell. 



Which kids' books, I had wanted 
to know, are appreciated more in 
theory, or by adults, than by actual 
kids? I never heard a knock against 
Beverly Cleary and only one 
against Dr. Seuss. But probably 



'WIT'/ 



"The person who gets the most 
answers [to the Bouncer's Five- 
Year Anniversary quiz] wins an all 
expenses-paid night out on the 
town with the Bouncer. Ties will be 
broken by the best response to this 
brain teaser: Why is a raven like a 
writhing disc?" 

Kitty St. Clair, S.F. Weekly, 

October 14-28, 2009. 



half my sample group had 
shrugged at Where the Wild Things 
Are. "Impenetrable," one educator 
and critic [Humpty Dumpty ? - Ed.] 
said... Other revered works flagged 
by people I spoke to were the Alice 
in Wonderland hooks (too druggy, 
too much knotty wordplay; Alice 
herself is a drip), Winnie-the-Pooh 
(too twee) , and Eloise. . . 

From "Where the Wild Things 
Weren 't " by Bruce Handy in the 
New York Times Sunday Book 
Review, October 8, 2009 



"What surprised me ... is how 
Mark Stern, executive vice presi- 
dent of original programming 
for Sci Fi, reacted when I actually 
asked him about this idea last 
year during my visit to the sets in 
Vancouver. ... I asked him about 
the similarities this [the rz^w Alice 
four-hour miniseries coming to the 
SyFy Channel] had to American 
McGee's Alice, the videogame. He 
was definitely familiar with the 
work but felt the Alice in Wonder- 
land story wasn't really all that 
interesting. 'I mean, she's a dumb 
girl who fell in a hole — what's so 
great about that?'" 

Posted by Keith McDuffee on 
TVSquad. com on March 1 9, 2008. 




■^ 



In Walrus, Gimble, Mimsy, 

Borogove — 
Which Lead to Dum and Dee and 

to that Wood 
Where fury lurked, and blackness, 

and that Crow. 

And when I die, my spirit will pass 

by... 
To Nameless Trench and Nameless 
Wood, and rest. 
A. S. Byatt in ^/i^ New Yorker, 
April 6, 2009 



33 



The Logic of Alice: Clear Thinking 

in Wonderland 

Bernard M. Patten 

Prometheus Books, 2009 

ISBN 978-1591026754 

Reviewed by Ray Kiddy 

The author of The Logic of Alice, a 
retired neurologist, has quite a bit 
to say about logic and the brain. 
And he obviously knows a lot 
about the Alice books. But, while 
he discusses logic and Alice at the 
same time, it is not clear that he 
has actually found any relationship 
between them. 

For example, he has a lot to 
say about the first paragraph of 
Wonderland. One can readily admit 
that this is a well-written and 
meaningful paragraph. And one 
can make the point, as the author 
does, that Lewis Carroll was a very 
capable logician and that it was, 
at various points in his life, impor- 
tant for him to explain his ideas 
about logic. One can accept that 
the Reverend Dodgson could have 
brought Aristotle, Thales of Mile- 
tus, and Descartes to a discussion 
of logic. He might even have seen 
the relevance to this discussion of 
the actions of Neo, the lead char- 
acter from The Matrix, if he had 
been exposed to that movie. But 
I found it difficult to accept that 
one could read into that first para- 
graph so many deep ideas about 
logic and the nature of fallacy. 
And the logical fallacies of Tom 
DeLay (below) would not have 
been part of the discussion. 

It seems as though the author 
has taken all of the many things he 
wants to say about logic and hung 
them on points in Wonderland and 
Looking-Glass, where one may or 
may not see any real connection, 
or has used images from the books 
to color his prose in an entertain- 
ing manner. But even though I 
found that I accepted the author's 
arguments about the importance 
of logic to Lewis Carroll, I could 
not really accept the author's use 
of throwaway similes and weak 



and 




metaphor to connect parts of the 
Alice stories to arguments of logic. 

One can see that as Lewis Car- 
roll compiled Sylvie and Bruno, his 
purposes were clearly pedagogi- 
cal. But this is usually seen as the 
root of the flaws in that book, 
not the source of its strengths. 
Indeed, the point is often made 
that Wonderland is a much bet- 
ter book because, unlike most of 
Victorian children's literature, 
its purpose was not to teach. It is 
wonderful that a mathematician 
and logician was able to be as flex- 
ible and creative as he needed to 
be in order to write it. Which of 
his ideas about logic did he con- 
sciously invert, or subconsciously 
subvert, in order to come up with 
a book that is not illogical, nor 
even a-logical, but almost delight- 
edly anti-logical? It is clear that 
Dodgson playfully turned logic on 
its head. In this same way, a math- 
ematician can prove that equals 
1 in a most amusing way, and we 
may even be brought to wishing it 
were so. But the exercise does not 
prove anything about or about 
1 . It is rather about how we miss 
important details or trick ourselves 
when we desire to. It would be 
wonderful to have a book about 
how Lewis Carroll used and mis- 
used the logic he knew to come up 
with his wonderful stories, but this 
is not that book. 

Dr. Patten makes arguments 
with no connection to the Alice 
milieu. An example of this occurs 
when the author describes the log- 
ical fallacies in statements by Tom 
DeLay, the American politician 
who is no longer a member of the 
U.S. House of Representatives. His 



inclusion is unlikely to stand the 
test of time. If a politician is barely 
relevant now, how will the author's 
argument work when even the 
educated reader has no reason 
to remember him? Lewis Car- 
roll knew how to refer to current 
events and people in such a way 
that, even if one was completely 
unaware of the events, the story 
still worked. Patten's points about 
this gentleman are, on the other 
hand, already somewhat dated. 
The transformations of logic 
that exist in AAiWare not obvious, 
but subde. Alice's fall down the 
hole is not an act that makes a logi- 
cal point, but rather is a standard 
narrative tool to transform the 
characters in the story and a way to 
generate dramatic tension. Dr. Pat- 
ten makes points of logic that are 
interesting. He makes some points 
about the Alice story that are inter- 
esting. But, alas, they are interest- 
ing for very different reasons. 



End of the Century 
Chris Roberson 

Pyr, Prometheus Books, 2009 

ISBN: 978-1591026976 

Reviewed by Ray Kiddy 

While this novel has only a few 
direct references to Lewis Carroll, 
it has many underlying references 
that a Carrollian will recognize 
immediately and a person not 
familiar with the Alice books will 
miss entirely. 

Three main stories are told in 
parallel, switching back and forth 
every few chapters. The stories 
link up at the end of the book, 
when the characters must, liter- 
ally, save the entire universe. (This 
is, after all, a fantasy novel.) The 
main characters start out in differ- 
ent time periods. In one thread, a 
teenager named Alice Fell (yes, re- 
ally) travels from Texas to England 
in the year 2000, chasing epileptic 
visions. In her first episode, as a 
child, she sees herself floating 
slowly down a flight of stairs. In an- 
other thread, investigating detec- 



34 



live Sandford Blake and his assis- 
tant, Miss Bonaventure, are trying 
to solve a series of murders that 
threaten to disturb the populace 
at the time of Queen Victoria's 
Diamond Jubilee in 1897. The last 
thread takes place in "498 Anno 
Domini" and has "Galaad," which 
we usually spell with another "h," 
leading King "Artor" on a quest 
for what seems to end up being 
the Holy Grail, inspired by what 
seems to be another epilepsy-in- 
duced vision. 

The author makes connections 
to Lewis Carroll, but is not strident 
about them. At one point, Alice 
remembers hearing "about Lewis 
Carroll and van Gogh and Ten- 
nyson all having TLE [ Temporal 
Lobe Epilepsy] and all of them tak- 
ing their seizure experiences and 
turning them into art." Alice also 
writes in her journal with purple 
ink, inspired to do so after hearing 
that Lewis Carroll did so. 

Another use of Carroll is found 
in the "save the universe" part of 
the story. Basically, the story hinges 
on the inhabitants of another uni- 
verse who are seeking a universe to 
colonize. They are not aggressive 
and are looking for a compatible 
universe without current residents. 
They mean us no harm. As they 
bump into our universe, though, 
they pick up a person who lies to 
them. It turns out that the people 
of this other universe cannot rec- 
ognize lies, or stories, or any infor- 
mation that represents something 
that does not exist. (The author 
makes the point that this universe 
certainly had no Lewis Carroll 
in it!) As this "ark" starts coloniz- 
ing a part of England, it creates a 
Red King to defend it, as well as 
strange creatures that — based on 
Roberson's and Humpty Dumpty's 
descriptions — are clearly toves, 
borogoves, and a Jabberwock. The 
liar describes these animals to the 
residents of this other universe, 
so they must obviously exist, as far 
as the colonists are concerned. 
(One is reminded of people who 
think that, just because something 



is in the New York Times, it must 
be true.) All sorts of troublesome 
incongruities result in all three 
timelines. 

Yet, despite the book's three 
overlapping plot lines and two, or 
perhaps three, mythologies, it is 
not confusing. The book is play- 
ful and does not take itself too 
seriously. Better written than most 
Wonderland pastiches and fictional 
accounts of what really happened 
between Alice Liddell and Charles 
Dodgson, this A/zc^tinged sci-fi 
fantasy is definitely worth reading. 
Dodgson might find himself some- 
what bemused — and at least a little 
amused. 



A Strange Eventful History: 

The Dramatic Lives of Ellen Terry, 

Henry Irving, and 

Their Remarkable Families 

Michael Holroyd 

Chatto and Windus, London, 2008 

Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 
New York, 2009 

ISBN-13: 978-0-374-27080-3 

Reviexved by Cindy Claymore Walter 

The title of this biography — A 
Strange Eventful History — sounds as 
if it belongs to a Victorian thriller, 
and its opening chapter sustains 
the impression. The young actress 
Ellen Terry disappeared one dark 
London night. The only clue was 
in her bedroom: A note that read 
"Found Drowned" was attached 
to a photograph of her estranged 
husband, artist G. F. Watts, who 
had painted a picture with that 
title. The family put on their 
mourning clothes and were quite 
surprised a few days later when 
their daughter returned to tell 
them that she was alive, although 
sharing that life with a man not 
her husband. 

So begins the fascinating tale of 
Ellen Terry and Henry Irving and 
their families. The main thrust 
of the story, however, is how they 
transformed the bohemian culture 
of the theater into one of respect- 
ability. Henry Irving became the 



first actor to be knighted, and 
Ellen Terry became one of the first 
actresses to be appointed a Dame 
of the British Empire. 

Terry and Irving were very 
much of their time. Their lives 
embody the conventions of a novel 
by Dickens or Hardy. Ellen Terry 
came from a traveling theatrical 
family and was expected to be an 
actress, but it was assumed that 
her older sister Kate would be "the 
Terry of the age." Henry Irving's 
transformation from clerk with a 
speech impediment to great trage- 
dian included a name change. 

The story of Ellen Terry's un- 
happy marriage to G. F. Watts 
and return to her family is well 
known. When the Rev. Charles 
Dodgson/Lewis Carroll visited, 
he sensed something was amiss. 
In later years, he wrote about 
Ellen Terry's failed marriage with 
compassion, stating, "I don't think 
she had a fair chance of learning 
her new duties. Instead of giving 
her a home of her own he went 
on living as a guest with an elderly 
couple. . . ." Nevertheless, Carroll 
suspended his friendship with 
Terry as long as she was living with 
Godwin, the architect she had met 
while married to Watts. 

Fortunately, Ellen Terry's 
return to the stage was handily 
managed after she ran into an 
impresario friend while he was 
hunting. The comeback netted 
her £40 a week — a lot of money 
then. She needed it, as Godwin 
was nearly bankrupt, and she now 
had two children. She was a sensa- 
tion. Her appeal is evident in the 
book's reproductions of the Watts 
portraits and the extraordinary 
Lady Macbeth painting, all blood- 
red lips and blazing eyes, by John 
Singer Sargent. 

Henry Irving's struggle for 
success took longer and involved 
more of a makeover, includ- 
ing separation from the wife 
who thought his profession was 
ridiculous. He and Ellen Terry 
had once performed together, 
badly, in a Shakespeare adapta- 



35 



tion. Nevertheless, when he was 
given the lease of the Lyceum, 
he chose her to play Ophelia to 
his Hamlet. Although Terry did 
not think she had played well, 
both performances were hailed 
as masterpieces. Holroyd relates 
that Irving told Bram Stoker, his 
assistant, that Shakespeare himself 
would have been delighted by her 
performance. 

Even Henry James noted, grudg- 
ingly, that it was London's greatest 
theater. Irving and Terry traveled 
to the United States several times 
to perform (which practice she 
repeated for cash), and they be- 
came the theatrical team of the 
age. Strangely, Irving did not like 
modern plays. He disliked Shaw, 
who returned the compliment 
(probably because he was in love 
with Ellen Terry), and he did not 
perform Ibsen. Shakespeare and 
sentimental Victoriana were the 
Lyceum's stocks in trade, and that 
was enough for a long time. He 
even, unwisely, refused to present a 
play based on Stoker's Dracula. 

Of course these irresistibly 
charismatic people had children 
who labored in their shadows. 
Both of the Irving sons became 
actors, to their mother's fury, 
and Henry Junior married the 
actress Dolly Baird, one of Lewis 
Carroll's favorites. The Terry chil- 
dren — ^who adopted the last name 
Craig — were much more explo- 
sive. Terry's daughter, Edy Craig, 
was a costumer, set designer, pro- 
ducer, suffragette, and companion 
of a woman who was an infatuated 
amanuensis to Ellen. Son Gordon 
Craig, however, had a personal life 
that made Lord Byron's look like 
that of a Trappist monk. He had 
approximately thirteen children 
by an assortment of women who 
ranged from his long-suffering 
mistress, his longer-suffering wife, 
and his muse Isadora Duncan, to 
a battery of luckless servitors. Gor- 
don Craig inherited his father's 
talent for design, and his ideas on 
set lighting were avant-garde — and 
are still much used today. 



This wonderful book plunges 
the willing reader into a world 
that lurches from the antique 
to the modern but is still crazy 
after all these years. In addition 
to being delightfully written with 
a droll wit (Godwin's wife's "re- 
spectability was to be enhanced by 
chronic invalidism"), the volume 
is beautifully produced, with well- 
chosen photographs by Dodgson, 
Cameron, et al., full-color Pre- 
Raphaelite paintings, and colored 
illustrations and decorations by 
Gordon Craig. It has a formidable 
index and should prove valuable 
to academics and enthusiasts for 
years to come. 



KapmuHKu u paseoeopti: Becedu 

JIbwuce Kapponne 

[Pictures and Conversations: 

Discussions about Lewis Carroll] 

Nina M. Demurova 

Saint Petersburg: Vita Nova, 2008. 

575 p. ISBN 978-5-93898-173-7 

Reviewed by August A. Imholtz,Jr. 

At the beginning of her Wonder- 
land adventure, Alice mused to 
herself about the use of a book 
without pictures or conversations, 
so she surely would have loved 
Nina M. Demurova's beautifully 
written, sumptuously illustrated, 
and elegantly produced book. 
Writing in Russian about conversa- 
tions she conducted over a period 
of several years, Nina presents a 
series of reflective interviews with 
the most famous translators and 
illustrators of Alice together with 
discussions with a Carroll collec- 
tor, critics, a composer, a theater 
director, and a performance art- 
ist couple, all hailing from Rus- 
sia or some of the former Soviet 
Republics. Some of their names 
and works will be well known to at 
least a few collectors worldwide, 
while others almost certainly will 
be quite new to all of them, which 
surely is one of the clear purposes 
and positive outcomes of a work 
like this. 



What kind of pictures and 
conversations make up this book? 
Early on in her introductory re- 
marks. Prof. Demurova — for Nina 
Mikhailovna Demurova is not 
only a famous translator but also a 
distinguished professor — explains 
her methodology: "The reader will 
notice that our conversations flow 
in different ways. Certain topics 
particularly interested me and I 
did not hesitate to raise them for 
discussion." One of those topics, 
at least for the translators, was how 
to cope with the very "Englishness" 
of Carroll's works and nonsense 
words. This means overcoming 
particular textual ambiguities as 
well as placing Wonderland itself 
into an understandable Russian 
fairytale context. Few of the in- 
terviewees kept within the strict 
framework of the questions. De- 
murova reserved the right, de- 
pending on the nature of the con- 
versation, to include or exclude 
her own questions from the final 
edited and published transcript. 
And yet the tone maintained 
throughout the interviews and 
correspondence is one in the best 
tradition of oral history, rather 
than the almost inquisitional aca- 
demic quibbling one sometimes 
encounters. 

At times the interviewer be- 
comes interviewee, especially with 
people who know Nina Demurova 
personally. For one of them she 
recounts the story, already well 
known to her friends, about the 
circuitous route by which she first 
came to translate the Alice books 
into Russian, in an edition illus- 
trated by P. Chuklev and published 
in 1967 in Sofia, Bulgaria. In 1978, 
a new edition of her translation 
was issued in the Literary Land- 
marks series by Nauka, the pub- 
lishing house of the Soviet Acad- 
emy of Sciences. This edition has 
Tenniel illustrations and Martin 
Gardner's annotations (translated 
and edited for her Russian reader- 
ship) , as well as an appendix of 
critical essays. This was followed 
by an expanded version under the 



36 







Yuri A. Vashchenko 



Nauka imprint 
in 1990. 

And now 
for the pic- 
tures, which 
sadly cannot 
all be repro- 
dticed here 
and which 
include work 
by many highly 
skilled and largely very success- 
ful artists. Yuri A. Vashchenko 
has done absolutely brilliant and 
almost surreal illustrations, which 
were created only after intensely 
thoughtful textual discussions 
with Nina Demurova and pub- 
lished for the first time in 1982 
in the splendid little 13 x lOH cm 
Kniga editions in 1990. These are 
still available only in the foreign 
hard currency stores (beryozkas) in 
Moscow. Tatiana lanovskaia has 
playfully rendered an exceedingly 
charming Alice and other newly 
conceived, clearly non-Tenniel, 
Wonderland creatures. Oleg Lip- 
chenko speaks of his intricately 
conceived architectonic re-envi- 
sioning of the whole CarroUian 
universe with humor and serious- 
ness. Anastasiya Zacharova depicts 
the Lion and Unicorn (Lev i Yedino- 
rog) so that they resemble nothing 
so much as late twentieth-century 
punk rockers. One also finds il- 
lustrator Leonid Tishkov with his 
starkly minimalist depictions of the 
Snark crew; Vladimir Tseplyaev, 
a sculptor in wood of characters 
of great feeling; and sculptor 
Aleksandr Lazarevich. Additional 
chapters are devoted to artists such 
as Gennadii Kalinovskii, who is 
perhaps better known here in the 
West than some of the others, but 




that in no way implies that the oth- 
ers are not very intriguing indeed. 

The translators and literary 
critics are represented by, among 
others, Galina Zahoder, widow of 
Boris Zahoder, whose Alice transla- 
tion was important and popular in 
the 1960s; Leonid Yachnin, trans- 
lator of The Hunting of the Snark; 
Aleksandra Borisenko, an aca- 
demic; Dmitrii Urnov, a critic and 
explicator of Carroll's puzzles and 




Oleg Lipchenko 



Gennadii Kalinovskii 

linguistic fun; Victor Fet, an early 
translator of The Hunting of the 
Snark and a poet in his own right; 
and Grigorii Kruzhkov, a physicist 
turned nonsense poet and transla- 
tor of Carroll's verses, including 
yet another Russian version of The 
Hunting of the Snark. 

For Vladimir Rubin, who is 
the sole composer covered in the 
book, Demurova prints a page 
from the score of "Album Alisii" 
and an exposition of how he trans- 
poses Carroll's inner jokes (zakritii 
shutki) from language to music 
and much more. 

Boris Bim-Bad, president of 
the Open University in Moscow, 
affords the perspective of both an 
anthropologist and a psychologist 
as he explains why Carroll and 
his works hold so much attraction 
for him. Because of their logical 
nonsense and amusing wordplay, 
often also rooted in logic, he ranks 
Lewis Carroll with Aleksandr Push- 
kin and Hans Christian Andersen 
as authors to be read by Russian 
students. 

Delightfully antic and talented 
Tania lanovskaia, to select one 
participant in the conversations 
for closer examination, recounts 



how she first became acquainted 
with Alice's Adventures in Wonder- 
land v/hen a little girl. Her mother, 
Iliya Yakovlevna Davtyan, was an 
editor at the publishing house 
Kniga, the same firm that issued 
the Vashchenko illustrations to 
accompany Demurova's Alice 
translation. Tania, however, had 
read the Alice books many times 
and on January 28, 1978, on the 
eightieth anniversary of Lewis 
Carroll's death, began to create 
some 36 illustrations of her own. 
In 2005, she published her Won- 
derland illustrations, at first only 
in black and white — an edition 
that was supplanted in 2008 by 
a fine edition with color illustra- 
tions. Her Through the Looking-Glass 
volume appeared, with black and 
white illustrations, in Ryazan in 
central Russia in 2003, and a col- 
ored edition is forthcoming. Both 
of her books also have editions 
in English. In her Alice, for the 
verses beginning "Twinkle, twinkle 
little bat!" the Russian poet Dina 
Orlovskaya, who translated that 
verse parody in Nina Demurova's 
Nauka editions, changed "bat" to 
"elephant" and begins the poem 
"Evening elephant" {''Vechernii slon, 
vechernii slon," which is a parody of 
the famous Russian song " Vechernii 
Zvon," i.e., "Evening Bells"); Tania 
explains how she at first envi- 
sioned an elephant standing on 
another elephant to represent the 
transferred Carroll's image from a 
bat to an elephant, admittedly stay- 
ing within the mammalian family 
and remaining comical. 

The conversation with Mar- 
garita F. Roushailo, mathematician 
and vsddow of Aleksandr Rous- 
hailo, the greatest of the Russian 
collectors of Lewis Carroll's works, 
forms a fitting conclusion to this 
long but engrossing book. Many 
of the illustrations in the book, 
all produced with great verisimili- 
tude, came from the originals in 
Aleksandr Roushailo's collection. 

It would indeed be splendid 
for other scholars to do for Brit- 
ish, American, Japanese, or other 



37 



countries' Alice translators and il- 
lustrators what Nina Demurova has 
so ably and entertainingly done for 
contemporary Russian ones. 

A few minor quibbles may be 
mentioned. There are no foot- 
notes, but then really, one might 
ask, where outside of senior com- 
mon room conversations of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge colleges do 
conversations come alive with pha- 
lanxes of supporting footnotes? A 
dust jacket, perhaps a transparent 
wrapper like the old Transmatic 
ones, would have been a good idea 
so that the nicely decorated cover 
and gold-tooled leather spine 
could be appreciated without risk 
of damage by one's peanut butter- 
and-jelly-fingered curious or Rus- 
sian-reading grandchildren. 

The only person who I think 
has been omitted from Nina's 
otherwise almost all-inclusive gal- 
lery of contemporary and near 
contemporary Russian Carrollian 
enthusiasts is the late, outstand- 
ing bibhographer Vladimir V. 
Lobanov, who did all of his Carroll 
research while working as rare 
book librarian at the Library of 
Tomsk State University in Siberia. 
His Lewis Carroll in Russia, which 
appeared in 2000 in a 400-page 
issue oi Folia Anglistica, the journal 
of Moscow State University's De- 
partment of English Linguistics, is 
the finest and most complete bibli- 
ography of Russian Alices through 
1999 ever published. Perhaps his 
omission was unavoidable since he 
died before Demurova undertook 
this work. 

Ordering a copy of this ex- 
cellent work ($95, delivered) is 
straightforward, although it takes 
a bit of ingenuity. Petropol, a Rus- 
sian bookstore in Brookline, Mass., 
lists it on their site (see URL note 
p. 42). The site is in Russian, and 
clicking "Translate this page into 
English" at the top does not work. 
What you have to do is to open a 
second window or tab with Google 
Language Tools, and go through 



the standard ordering procedure, 
cutting and pasting the Russian 
phrases over into the Google 
"Translate Text" box to under- 
stand them. Also, holding your 
cursor over a button with Russian 
text will show you its function (in 
English) in the toolbar at the bot- 
tom left corner of your screen, 
although they are pretty intuitive. 
[I speak not a word of Russian, and 
successfully ordered this book! - Ed.] 
Alternatively, you can ivy emailing 
Petropol (service@petropol.com); 
writing (1428 Beacon St., Brook- 
line, MA, 02446); faxing (617-713- 
0418); or calling (617-232-8820 or 
800-404-5396); their internal code 
for the book is KH 141 007. 



-jilt 

Wonderland: The Zen of Alice 

Daniel Doen Silberberg 

Parallax Press, 2009 

Reviewed by Mark Burstein 

As the variously attributed say- 
ing goes, "Writing about music is 
like dancing about architecture," 
a paradox even more profound 
when applied to attempting to 
explicate the ineffable institution 
of Zen Buddhism. But using words 
to transcend words is historically a 
part of that tradition, whose koans 
("riddles with no answers") are 
designed to awaken the student. 
Longer expositions, unfortunately, 
may have the opposite effect. 
Silberberg's thin book, like 
its many competitors — the most 
recent of which include Buddhism 
for Dummies (For Dummies, 2002) 
and The Complete Idiot 's Guide to 
Zen Living (Alpha, 2000) — at- 
tempts a simplified, occasionally 
simplistic, exposition of Zen and 
its practices. What makes this of 
moderate interest to Carrollians 
is that quotes from Wonderland 
and Looking-Glass are sprinkled 
throughout. Although they pro- 
vide confirmation of and parallels 
to the wisdom and sayings of Zen, 
the author does not present any 
insights into the Alicehooks or 
their author; for him the books 



are way stations supplementing his 
argument. 

That the Alice books represent 
derelict canons of Zen Buddhism 
is a fine conceit, in fact it was the 
subject of my college paper "All Is 
in One-derland" in 1970, much 
of which appears as Part VII ("No 
Matter! Never Mind! No Mind! 
Never Matter!") of my 1972 the- 
sis, "To Catch a Bandersnatch," 
which has been posted on the 
Society's home page since 1996.' 
Zen Masters such as Soyen Shaku 
(1859-1919) or D.T Suzuki 
(1870-1966), who popularized 
these teachings in the West, could 
conceivably have used Alice in 
their groundbreaking work, as 
the parallels are so striking. 

Unfortunately, the book 
under discussion adds little to 
our knowledge of either Zen or 
Wonderland. It contains an over- 
abundance of personal anecdotes, 
somewhat odd in a tradition that 
is supposed to transcend the ego, 
and Silberberg's pop-culture ref- 
erences (e.g., Serpico, the Everly 
Brothers, Kill Bill 2, beer pong, his 
hanging out with Led Zeppelin) 
seem forced, with the author try- 
ing too hard to be hip. He also 
makes things up, for instance 
spending several pages on "Lenny 
Bruce's talk[ing] about people 
having 'Nez,' . . . the opposite of 
Zen." An interesting coinage to be 
sure, but just as surely not from 
the mouth of Mr. Bruce. He also 
quotes Carlos Castaneda as if the 
Don Juan books were nonfiction. 

Well-intentioned, sometimes hu- 
morous, the book serves as well as 
any other as an introduction to this 
curious nonreligious religion. But 
to those readers more interested in 
Zen's ties to Carroll, I must humbly 
recommend my essay. 
1 www.lewiscarroll.org/bander.pdf 



38 



TWO NEW ILLUSTRATED 
WONDERLANDS 

Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland 
Illustrated by Rodney Matthews 

Templar Publishing, 2008, £19.99 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

With Illustrations by John Vernon 

Lord and an Introduction and 

Bibliography by the Artist, 

Textual corrections by 

Selwyn Goodacre 

Artists' Choice Editions, 2009, £68 

Reviewed by Andrew Ogus 

Nothing has been illustrated as 
often as the Alice books. Here are 
two more additions to the Alice 
library, demonstrating twice again 
the variety of approach these sto- 
ries afford. 

Rodney Matthews lists Disney 
and Arthur Rackham as major 
influences; one may also find 
traces of Dr. Seuss, Ronald Searle, 
and art nouveau in the lavish full- 
page or full-spread paindngs that 
move, as he says, "between macro 
and telephoto" and the expert, 
single-color spot drawings oddly 
dispersed through the text. A care- 
ful examination rewards the viewer 
with a myriad of whimsical detail, 
from the heart-shaped fingernails 
of the Queen to the headgear of 
the Hatter's extensive clientele; vir- 
tually every character wears a hat. 
Sadly this blonde Alice looks too 
old and is too stiffly rendered, un- 
like the fluid but hideous "human" 
denizens of her sci-fi wonderland. 
The text is subordinated to luxuri- 
ous production values including an 
elaborate box which even contains 
inset marbles; the miniscule type 
falls in an uncomfortably wide 
reading line. 

John Vernon Lord's thoughtful 
introduction outlines his unusual 
and sensible approach. He has 
chosen to leave the dreaming Alice 
out of the illustrations altogether 
— but unfortunately undermines 
this interesting concept by print- 
ing her thoughts and speeches in a 



bold blue font throughout to "give 
her a kind of presence." Lord's lin- 
ear style lends itself beautifully to 
his emblematic drawings of objects 
such as a bat-like brown tea tray, 
lovely initial caps, and a tempting 
bottle, but not to the characters. 
The naked March Hare and Dor- 
mouse are a shock; there are jar- 
ring variations such as unexpected 
collages (one of which apparently 
contains an unwelcome photo 
element — best butter or not) , and 
a chaotic drawing of the Queen of 
Hearts that seems to have slipped 
in from another book, or perhaps 
his sketchpad. A candle going 
out cleverly references Holiday's 
snatching of the Baker; an exqui- 
site picture of an eel, canvases, and 
tubes of oil paint (just in case we 
didn't get the joke) closely follows 
a clumsy bright green gryphon 
and black and white Mock Turtle 
who share a single page. This in- 
consistent use of color and black 
and white (once within a single 
drawing) is confusing, as is the oc- 
casional placement of an emblem- 
atic spot drawing in the margin as 
opposed to the breakthroughs and 
runarounds within the text. The 
printed endpapers comprise tan- 
talizing but illegible instructions 
for playing croquet from an 1864 
publication, with flamingos and 
hedgehogs substituted for mallets 





John Vernon Lord 

and balls. Lord's head was clearly 
filled with ideas, but too many of 
them appear in this interesting but 
uneven Wonderland. 



Rodney Matthews 



EXPLORATIONS: 
THREE ACADEMIC STUDIES 

The Hidden Adult: Defining 

Children 's Literature 

Perry Nodelman 

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 

University Press, 2008. 390 

pp. Cloth: ISBN 978-0-8018- 

8979-0, $70.00; Paper: ISBN 

978-0-8018-8980-6, $35.00 

Children's Literature: A Reader's 
History from Aesop to Harry Potter 

Seth Lerer 

Chicago: University of Chicago 

Press, 2008. 396 pp. Cloth: ISBN 

9780226473000, $30; e-book: ISBN 

9780226473024, $5.00-$19.00; 
Paper: ISBN 9780226473017, $19 

Enchanted Hunters: The Power of 

Stories in Childhood 

Maria Tatar 

Norton, 2009. 296 pp. 

ISBN 978-0-393-06601-2, $27. 

Reviewed by Clare Imholtz 

Alice does not play a huge part in 
any of these three academic stud- 
ies of children's literature, but 
each author looks with a clear and 
discerning eye at Carroll's clas- 
sic. Perry Nodelman 's book is the 
meatiest of the three. Trying "to 
read and think as intensively as I 
could," Nodelman, long a leading 
scholar in the children's literature 
field, examines AAzWand five 
other nineteenth- and twentieth- 



39 



century books that are or histori- 
cally have been read by children, 
in order to identify what it is 
that defines "that highly unusual 
category: children's literature." 
Nodelman believes that AAzW, 
while sharing characteristics with 
the others, such as the importance 
of "pictures and conversations," 
is a special case, a meta-example, 
which both exemplifies and tran- 
scends the genre. 

Children's books show us what 
it is like to be a child, someone 
who knows less about the world 
than an adult does. In Alice, it 
is the narrator's comments that 
point up the differences between 
Alice's perceptions and reactions 
and those of the more knowing 
adult author and readers. All of 
the six books Nodelman examines 
have what he terms a "shadow 
text," that is, a hidden text of 
which adults rather than children 
would be more aware, but Alice, 
despite its surface simplicity, has a 
huge shadow text. Alice is also spe- 
cial in that it allows many complex 
interpretations. The fact that Alice 
herself is always questioning real- 
ity and demanding explanations 
makes it seem only reasonable that 
readers do so as well. "She assumes 
that there is more than meets the 
eye, that what is being taken for 
granted as simple and obvious by 
the characters she encounters is 
not simple at all. She assumes in a 
sense that she is in a story." 

The shifting uncertainties in 
Wonderland undermine what 
Alice thinks she knows. "Almost 
every sequence in the book in- 
volves Alice confronting a situa- 
tion that transcends the expecta- 
tion she has built on her previous 
knowledge." Many confrontations 
with the creatures (Duchess, Hat- 
ter, etc.) involve discussion of what 
Alice does and does not know. Yet 
"the odd thing about all this is 
how little Alice is disturbed by it": 
Wonderland is not a nightmare. 
Alice again and again is delighted 
by the strange new things that hap- 
pen to her, precisely because she 



enjoys learning about them. Al- 
ice's sense of uncertainty in Won- 
derland represents the essence of 
what it means to be a child — and 
also, given the limited certainties 
of adult knowledge, what it means 
to be an adult. Wonderland is ex- 
istential reality. And it is perhaps, 
Nodelman suggests, for this very 
reason that many adults find Alice 
unsuitable for children. 

As many have noted, AAzWis 
a response to and a parody of the 
didactic children's literature com- 
mon to the time. Yet Alice herself 
suffers, just like children in didac- 
tic stories, for her adventuresome 
nature. "'It was much pleasanter at 
home,' thought poor Alice... 
'I almost wish I hadn't gone down 
that rabbit-hole.'" Nodelman com- 
ments that that is a very important 
"almost," as it shows that Alice still 
believes, on balance, that being 
adventuresome is a good thing. 
The end of AA?W, however, seems 
to refute this message as Alice's 
sister reasserts a conventional view 
of childhood. 

Nodelman's discussion of Alice 
and the other books is limited to 
the first eighty pages; the remain- 
der of the book is a long critical 
review of academic commentary 
on children's literature generi- 
cally, of great interest to children's 
librarians and scholars; but less 
to the ordinary Lewis Carroll fan. 
However, if you depend on the 
index to find scattered references 
to Alice in this latter part of the 
book, you will miss an amusing 
one on page 174 about how Alice's 
sister counters "the wild anarchy 
opened up to Alice by a traveling 
male rabbit." Interestingly, Nodel- 
man notes that only a few critical 
studies discuss Alice zs children's 
literature; most dismiss that des- 
ignation as a cover for Carroll's 
conscious or unconscious true 
intentions. 

If Nodelman's is the meatiest of 
the three books under consider- 
ation here, the most entertaining 
is that by Seth Lerer, a Stanford 
University literature professor 



with a specialty in philology. Most 
of Lerer's general comments 
about Alice are based on second- 
ary sources. Yet he too is a close 
reader, focusing on nonsense and 
language, discussing Carroll in 
conjunction with that other nine- 
teenth-century master of beguiling 
nonsense, Edward Lear. 

Lerer looks at length at Car- 
roll's use of the word "queer," 
which appears more than twenty 
times in the two Alice books, not- 
ing that "words are queer, songs 
are queer, dreams are queer," and 
then after talking about the word's 
history ("...by the nineteenth 
century it had become one of the 
most frequently deployed terms 
to define experience outside the 
strictures of Victorian propriety"), 
he cleverly notes in an aside that 
Diagon Alley in the world of Harry 
Potter literally means Queer 
Street. The book is full of similar 
fascinating and unexpected con- 
nections; for example, after noting 
how "strange things" such as play- 
ing cards come alive in Wonder- 
land, and "come alive to rule," he 
jumps to Woody Allen's hilarious 
story "The Kugelmass Episode" 
in which an irregular verb races 
after Kugelmass on its spindly legs. 
Later, he finds similarities between 
"Father William" and Darwin's The 
Voyage of the Beagle. 

Lerer connects Lear and Carroll 
by linking the Hatter's tea party to 
a Lear limerick, yet carefully delin- 
eates the differences between the 
two's nonsense. He concludes the 
section on the two nonsense writers 
by saying that the Dadaists and Shel 
Silverstein are their direct heirs. It is 
very sad that this rich and evocative 
book from a major university press 
offers only what is basically a name 
and tide index. 

The overall purpose of Lerer's 
book is to examine what children's 
literature tells us about children 
through the ages. Maria Tatar's 
book, on the other hand, exam- 
ines what children tell us about 
children's literature. Tatar is a 
Harvard literature professor who 



40 



has written brilliantly about fairy 
tales. Her book, like Lerer's, fo- 
cuses more on reader response 
than the text itself, but unlike him, 
she looks at child readers only. 
Her primary interest in this book 
is in the psychology of reading. 

Tatar's book, while academic 
and impeccably sourced, is also 
an unabashed paean to childhood 
reading. In several ways, Tatar's 
comments parallel Nodelman's. 
What he calls a search for knowl- 
edge, she calls curiosity, saying 
that Carroll "creates a character 
so brimful of curiosity that she 
becomes a curiosity," and stating 
that after Alice, curiosity becomes 
a common feature of children's 
books. Like Nodelman, she be- 
lieves that Alice is a meta-example 
of children's literature. A/?V^ begins 
with boredom, just as it is boredom 
that brings children to reading. 
Tatar describes at length the intel- 
lectual stimulation that Wonder- 
land nonsense provides to Alice. 

In her quest to explore the 
power of children's books, which 
she says both absorb and transform 
their child readers, Tatar inter- 
viewed her young adult students to 
see what had stuck from their child- 
hood reading. She also includes 
an appendix of published recollec- 
tions by writers of how books they 
read as children changed their 
lives, from Emerson to Ozick to 
Oates (the latter on Alice). 

How do these books treat Car- 
roll/Dodgson the man? Nodel- 
man, interested only in the text, 
says nothing about him. Lerer 
makes one small, almost pro 
forma, biographical statement. But 
he gets it wrong. Noting that biog- 
raphy seems to be the major way 



of accessing the writings of Lear 
and Carroll, he describes them as 
"eccentric, maladroit, and sexually 
challenging (or challenged) men." 
Tatar also gets it wrong. Her book 
is the most biographically oriented 
of the three, yet, like Lerer, she is 
not up to date with the scholar- 
ship — she calls Carroll "pathologi- 
cally shy." 

In focusing on their treatment 
of Lewis Carroll, I have truly only 
scratched the surface of these 
three rewarding, insightful books, 
each of which has renewed my 
love of Alice and appreciation of 
her creator. 



m 

EAT ME 

An exciting new publication will 
appeal to Carroll collectors every- 
where, and to everyone else who 
likes to cook, eat, or read. It's the 
unique and fascinating Alice Eats 
Wonderland, an annotated, illus- 
trated cookbook adventure! 

Written by members August A. 
Imholtz, Jr. and Alison Tannen- 
baum, and illustrated by A. E. K, 
Carr, Alice Eats Wonderland is based 
on Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 
and is filled with entertaining 
excerpts modified from the origi- 
nal text; delicious and unusual 
recipes, both historic and modern; 
informative and creative illustra- 
tions; and extensive scholarly an- 
notations on the social and natural 
history of many of the recipes and 
ingredients. 




Alice Eats Wonderland may be 
ordered at $14.95 per copy (plus 
postage) from Applewood Books 
(www.awb.com), 1 River Road, 
Carlisle, MA, 01741. Phone: 781- 
271-0055; e-mail: applewood@awb. 
com. 



SPECIAL OFFER 

Black Dog Publishing's Illustrated 
Children 's Books "a visual journey 
through the history of the picture- 
book, examining design formats, 
printing processes, and character 
illustrations of classic tides from 
over the past 250 years" will be 
reviewed in full in the next KL 
issue, but LCSNA members have 
been offered a 40% discount on 
all orders for this title until the 
end of January 2010. Email Jes- 
sica Atkins (iess@blackdogonline. 
com) or write to her at 10a Acton 
Street, London wcix qng; +44 
(0)207 713 5097 tel; +44(0)207 
713 8682 fax. Their website is www. 
blackdogonline.com, but you can- 
not get the discount there. Orders 
will be fulfilled through their U.S. 
distributor. 



.&• 




41 



ART (sf ILLUSTRATION 

Living on a small island in 
the Bahamas with her family, 
Elena Kalis took advantage 
of the available water and 
children and her interest in 
underwater photography to 
create Alice in Waterkind. Her 
series of photos of floating 
and swimming children in 
Wonderland and Looking- 
Glass costumes captures the 
spirit of CarroUian playfulness. 

Last summer (July 4 to Sep- 
tember 7, 2009), the Port- 
land [Maine] Museum of Art pre- 
sented images from "For My Best 
Beloved Sister Mia ": An Album of 
Photographs by Julia Margaret Cam- 
eron, a rarely seen and privately 
owned album. In addition to her 
own work, the album includes 
pieces by her contemporaries, 
including Lewis Carroll, that Cam- 
eron collected. 

The opening show at Kunsthal 
KAdE, a brand-new exhibition 
space in Amersfoort, Netherlands, 
was Wonderland, Through the Looking 
Glass, from May 2 to August 30, 
which brought "together a group 
of international artists who use a 
rich and baroque visual language 
to create parallel worlds drawing 
on tableaux vivants, extreme narra- 
tives, anecdotal story telling, and 
fairy tales, and peppered with mel- 
ancholic and gothic references." 

The Fresno Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, History, and Science held 
the exhibition Anna Richards Brews- 
ter: American Impressionist from 
March 21 to June 5. It included six 
illustrations from her A New Alice 
in the Old Wonderland with illustra- 
tions "after John Tenniel." Full- 
page reproductions of these pic- 
tures are included in the book 
Anna Richards Brewster: American 
Impressionist (University of Califor- 
nia Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-520- 
25749-8). 

Cuban Artists ' Books & Prints/Libros 
y Grabados de Artistas Cubanos 
1985-2008, exhibited at the Gro- 








lier Club in New York City from 
May 20 to August 1 , included San- 
dra Ramos's book Jabberwocky, 
which mixes excerpts from Lewis 
Carroll's text and John Tenniel's 
images with her own on pages 
facing foldout mirrors. 

"Always in search of curious ob- 
jects, broken toys, bits of things 
and traces of stories, Adriana 
Peliano stitches together monsters, 
bodies, desires, and fairy tales. Her 
collages and assemblages are magi- 
cal and multiple inventories, 
where logic is reinvented with new 
meanings and narratives, creating 
language games and dream laby- 



All URLs (links) 

in "Far-Flung," 

explicit or implicit, 

are online and 

clickable! 

Go to http:// 

delicious.com/lcsna | 

and by using the 

alphabetical list or 

the "tags" at the 

right, you can 

instantly be taken to | 

the page(s) you 
V want. /M 



rinths. Everything is 
transformed to tell new 
stories that dislocate our 
way of seeing, inviting 
the marvelous to visit 
our world." View artist 
Adriana Peliano's Alice- 
inspired found-object 
compositions on her 
blog, along with her 
explanations and de- 
scriptions in Portuguese 
and English. See also 
"Ola, Brazil!" p. 31. 

Further Afe-related 
artwork and images by David Dela- 
mare (AL 82:51) are featured on 
his website. David is planning to 
produce an illustrated edition of 
Alice in Wonderland so he'll be pro- 
ducing images throughout the year. 

New York, Nexo York: The 20'' Cen- 
tury, an exhibit at The Norton 
Museum of Art in West Palm 
Beach, Florida, from October 3 to 
December 27, features over 50 
works of art — including a bronze 
head of Alice by Jose de Creeft 
from the famous Central Park 
sculpture — that capture New 
York's unique metropolitan sphere 
and the human interaction with it. 

"Moore Adventures in Wonder- 
land," an installation inspired by 
Marianne Moore and AAzWand 
created by Rosenbach Artist-in- 
Residence Sue Johnson, investi- 
gates the Rosenbach 's extensive 
Lewis Carroll and Marianne 
Moore collections and uncovers 
unexpected connections between 
the two. The installation will be 
at the Rosenbach Museum and 
Library in Philadelphia from 
September 23, 2009, through 
June 6, 2010. 

Hats off to the people who worked 
on the International Board on 
Books for Youth (IBBY) Regional 
Conference in Illinois, October 2 
to 4. The displays were amazing, 
particularly "The Imaginary 
Book": Artists from all over the 
world were asked to imagine the 



42 



books Alice saw as she fell down 
the rabbit hole and to create cov- 
ers for them. The display included 
72 incredible and original works 
from 30 countries. 

Minneapolis artist Cris t. Halver- 
son (the small t is his choice) has 
for some years been working on 
paintings, sculptures, etc., as his 
ongoing "Alice Project." He dis- 
played some of his "Alice" work at 
the Minneapolis Stevens Square 
Center for the Arts in 2008, and 
has another display of mostly new 
work running from October 24 
through November 29 at the Hop- 
kins Center for the Arts in Hop- 
kins, Minn. 

"Hide & Seek: Picturing Child- 
hood," an exhibit at the Nelson- 
Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas 
City, Missouri, running from Sep- 
tember 16, 2009, to February 21, 
2010, includes Lewis Carroll's 
photograph "Alexandra Kitchin" 
(1868) as an early example of 
photographs depicting children. 

Frank Brunner, fantasy and comic 
book illustrator, provides adult 
illustrations of Alice's encounters 
in Wonderland in the "Nudes" 
section of his website. 

"Picturing Childhood: Portraits 
from the Masters of Early Photog- 
raphy," an exhibition of children's 
portraits, features selected photo- 
graphs by Lewis Carroll, Eadweard 
Muyb ridge, Edward S. Curtis, and 
others and runs from October 10 
to November 18 at Castle in the 
Air, a gallery in Berkeley, Calif. 



ARTICLES 6^ACADEMIA 

Richard Alleyne's article "Invis- 
ible doorways or portals a step 
closer to reality, claim scientists" 
in The Telegraph (U.K.) of August 
9, 2009, describes how, "[ujsing a 
technique known as transforma- 
tion optics, the researchers have 
revealed a way to alter the pathway 
of light waves that could eventually 
allow them to create portals that 



are invisible to the human eye... 
Dr Huanyang Chen, from the 
Physics Department at Hong Kong 
University of Science and Tech- 
nology, said that 'people standing 
outside the gateway would see 
something like a mirror.'" Sound 
familiar? 

A previously undiscovered seven- 
teenth-century picture of a dodo 
was sold at auction by Christie's on 
July 9. The picture is particularly 
important as it was drawn before 
the bird became extinct, although 
it is uncertain whether it was 
drawn from life. The estimated 
price was £5,000-£7,000; the real- 
ized price was £44,450! 

In the Wall Street Journal, there 
were significant Carroll references 
on both Monday, September 28, 
and Wednesday, September 30. 
On Monday's Opinion page, a 
letter to the editor came complete 
with a Tenniel illustration of Alice 
and Humpty Dumpty. Wednesday's 
article "Major Miniaturist Makes 
Art That Comes With Its Own 
Microscope" was about a "nano- 
technologist" who sculpted a tab- 
leau of Alice at the tea party with 
the figure of Alice one-third the 
size of a period {KL 79:46). 

"Through the Looking Glass: The 
Tale of Allison Wonderland," an 
article in The Wrestling Daily irom 
September 30, covers the 22-year- 
old wrestling "starlet." 

Jim Beckerman's article "Down the 
rabbit hole, onto the silver screen. 
Society looks at 'Alice' at the mov- 
ies, including version filmed in 
New Jersey Overline" ( The Star- 
Ledger, Newark, New Jersey, Octo- 
ber 14, 2009) and John Brennan's 
"Fort Lee as 'Wonderland'" (The 
Record, New Jersey, October 18, 
2009) both covered the LCSNA's 
fall meeting in Fort Lee, N.J., on 
October 17. 

C. L. Dodgson and the LCSNA 
were well represented at the Mac- 
Coll Centenary Conference, held 
in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, this 



October. Society treasurer and 
professor of mathematics Dr. Fran- 
cine F. Abeles, together with Dr. 
Amirouche Moktefi, delivered a 
joint paper titled "Hugh MacColl, 
On Reading Lewis Carroll," which 
revealed the influence of C. L. 
Dodgson on the nineteenth-cen- 
tury Scottish mathematician and 
logician Hugh MacColl. "Mac- 
Coil's acquaintance with Dodg- 
son 's logical and mathematical 
works (particularly Symbolic Logic, 
Part I, and Curiosa Mathematica, 
Part /.• A New Theory of Parallels) 
convinced him to return to math- 
ematics after he had abandoned it 
for about thirteen years. Dodgson 
replied to MacColl's comments 
and criticisms in his reviews of 
Dodgson 's books that appeared in 
the important journal. The Ath- 
enaeum, in subsequent editions of 
those books. Moktefi discovered 
these reviews, previously thought 
to have been by an anonymous 
reviewer. We argue that their ex- 
change of views influenced their 
subsequent written work on math- 
ematical and logical topics." 

LCSNA President Andrew Sellon 
was quoted in Lauren Schuker's 
article "Kids' Movies Grow Up" in 
The Wall Street Journal, October 16, 
2009. Andrew was once again 
clarifying the relationship between 
Tim Burton's forthcoming movie 
Alice in Wonderland and the Alice 
books. La lutte continue! 

Despite all our wishes to the con- 
trary, the cover article of the 
Travel section of October 5's New 
York Times, "Adventures in Won- 
derland," refers to the Wonder- 
land Trail in Mount Rainier Na- 
tional Park. 

"Through the Looking Glass: The 
History, Philosophy & Literature 
of Childhood" is an online study 
course for members of the Har- 
vard Alumni Association, running 
from October 20 to December 10, 
2009. Professor Maria Tatar leads a 
series of online lectures and dis- 



43 



cussions exploring "the revelatory 
power of childhood reading and 
classic children's tales." See review 
on page 39. 



BOOKS 

Originally published in black and 
white in 1988, Glenn Diddit's 
Alice's Adventures In Wonderland: 
A Literature Through Art Novel 
(graphic novel) has been re- 
released in color. 

It seems that Lord Kir ofOz of the 
"Return to Wonderland" series 
{KL 77:32) is only the tip of the 
iceberg. The original kinky "Ro- 
mantica" series by Cheyenne Mc- 
Cray consists of four books, Won- 
derland: King of Hearts (Ellora's 
Cave, 2003), King of Spades, etc. 
The series title, a character named 
Alice, a brief cameo by the rabbit 
in the first book, and the journey 
into another land are about the 
only ties to the Alicehooks. 

As a companion to the AAiWbOO- 
piece jigsaw puzzle designed to 
look like a book {KL 82:51), Potter 
Style has just put out a similar- 
looking "book" consisting of 24 
note cards and envelopes ($17). 

Martin Gardner's Sphere Packing, 
Lewis Carroll, ^ Reversi (Number 3 
of "The New Martin Gardner 
Mathematical Library," Cambridge 
University Press, 2009, ISBN 
9780521756075) is a reprint of 
New Mathematical Diversions from 
Scientific American (New York, 
Simon & Schuster, 1966). It does 
include an updated bibliography 
for the chapter on Carroll. 

The new picture book ABC UK 
features the March Hare, Dor- 
mouse, and Hatter in quite a nice 
full-page picture on the "T is for 
Tea" page. The author is James 
Dunn, the illustrator Helen Bate, 
published by Frances Lincoln 
Children's books, U.K. 2008, U.S. 
2009, ISBN 978-1845076962. 

" Wonderland? is the story of a 
young girl Alice whose life is 



turned upside down by a powerful 
cocaine addiction. We follow her 
journey through pain and loneli- 
ness, where she discovers that her 
chosen lifestyle is not as glamor- 
ous as it may seem." A self-pub- 
lished photo book by "tigz" avail- 
able at Etsy.com. Prints and cards 
of photos from the book are also 
available. 

Lulu, Lolita und Alice: Das Leben 
beriimter Kindsmusen [ The Lives of 
Famous Child-Muses] by Alexandra 
Lavizzari (Ebersbach, 2005, ISBN 
978-3934703933) includes a chap- 
ter on Ms. Liddell. 

In his graphic memoir. Stitches (W. 
W. Norton, 2009, ISBN 978- 
0393068573), the distinguished 
illustrator David Small includes 
Tenniel's Alice and pig baby in a 
passage showing how, at age six, 
he played "Alice," with whom he'd 
fallen in love. Feeling that her 
long blonde hair gave her entree 
in Wonderland, he would wear a 
yellow towel on his head. He goes 
on to show himself passing 
through pieces of drawing paper 
as if through the mirror. 

The Toon Treasury of Classic Chil- 
dren 's Comics, selected and edited 
by Art Spiegelman and Frangoise 
Mouly, introduced by John Sci- 
eszka (Abrams Comicarts, 2009, 
ISBN 0810957302, $40) is a de- 
lightful volume in and of itself. 
Carrollian treasures include Tom 
McNamara's "Alix in Folly-Land" 
(just the title, really); Dave Berg's 
"The Tweedle Twins vs. The Hor- 
rible Groark" and "Alice in Topsy- 
Turvey," plus a small version of the 
cover, from Alice: New Adventures in 
Wonderland, Vol. 1, No. 10 (actually 
No. I),jul-Augl951 (P&C 
FB0800) ; and a small repro of the 
cover of The Adventures of Alice in 
Wonderland, No. 1, 1945 (P&C 
FB0300), wherein Alice is a bobby- 
soxer. (P&C numbers refer to 
Pictures and Conversations: Lewis 
Carroll in the Comics, An Annotated 



International Bibliography, 2nd Edi- 
tion, Ivory Door, 2005.) 

The Year's Best Science Fiction, 
Twenty-Sixth Annual Collection (ed- 
ited by Gardner Dozois, St. Mar- 
tin's Press, 2009, ISBN 978- 
0312551056) includes "Boojum," a 
story by Elizabeth Bear and Sarah 
Monette. 

Geneva-based publisher editions 
Notari has just released a bilingual 
version of The Hunting of the Snark 
(2009, ISBN 978-2940408023). 
The original English text is accom- 
panied by a new French transla- 
tion by M. Vertut and illustrations 
by the Franco-Swiss artist Jean- 
Marie Reynier made up of collages 
of eighteenth-century prints col- 
ored with watercolor. 

DC Comics' Detective Comics #854 
(June 24), 855 (July 29), 856 (Au- 
gust 26), and 857 (September 2) 
cover the storyline "Elegy," in 
which Batwoman runs up against 
Alice, "a madwoman who sees her 
life as a fairy tale and everyone 
around her as expendable extras" 
and who speaks only in lines from 
Lewis Carroll. 

Fans of comics from the 1950s 
might appreciate the Betty and 
Veronica Digest, No. 195 (June 
2009), which leads with "Betty in 
Wonderland" (pp. 1-21). Betty is 
babysitting for the Anderson kids, 
who beg her to read Alice in Won- 
derland every night. This time she 
changes the story a little. Betty 
(Alice) chases Archie down a big 
hole to Wonderland, where she 
meets the Cheshire Dog and other 
characters. Milkshakes and burg- 
ers make her shrink and grow, 
respectively. Veronica appears as 
the Red Queen who wants to take 
Archie from Betty, sticking her 
with Dee and Dum. Instead of 
croquet, Alice/Betty and Veron- 
ica/Red Queen have a bowling 
contest with Archie as prize. Betty 
loses, but fortunately Veronica's 
parents appear and help Betty 
escape from Wonderland. 



44 



Compiled by Muriel McCarthy, 
Ann Simmons, and Sue Hem- 
mens, "Beware the Jabbenvock!": 
Books on the Animal Kingdom in 
Marsh's Library (2009) is a hand- 
some, liberally illustrated, 143- 
page catalogue (printed in an 
edition of 500 copies) of an ex- 
hibit of the same name at Arch- 
bishop Marsh's Library in Dublin, 
Ireland. The book uses quotations 
from Lewis Carroll copiously, both 
in the titles of exhibit cases and in 
captions. 

Slovenly Betsy (Altemus, 1911), an 
Americanized pastiche (in the 
imitative sense) of Der Struwwelpeter 
(1845), has been printed in fac- 
simile by Applewood Books. Im- 
ages of Humpty, the Hatter, the 
March Hare, and (possibly) Alice 
appear on the endpapers holding 
hands with other nursery rhyme 
and fairy-tale characters. 

Jam Tomorrow: Memories of Life in 
Post-War Britain by Tom Quinn 
(Reader's Digest, 2009, ISBN 978- 
0276445040) offers a social history 
of Britain from 1945-1951 
through interviews and photo- 
graphy. 

Originally serialized as Heart no 
Kuni no Alice in Comic Blade Maga- 
zine, Alice in the Country of Hearts 
is a manga-style graphic novel by 
QuinRose with art by Hoshino 
Soumei, and will be released on 
February 2, 2010. "In this inventive 
retelling of the classic tale, Alice 
is dragged down the rabbit hole 
into a frightful world, where the 
fairytale-like citizens wield dan- 
gerous weapons for an insidious 
cause. Unable to return home, will 
she be able to find happiness in a 
world full of danger and beautiful 
young men?" (Also see Cyberspace 
for the game version.) 

Classic Starts: Alice in Wonderland 
&" Through the Looking-Glass is "re- 
told from the Lewis Carroll origi- 
nals." Member Clare Imholtz says: 
"The drawings are charming, but 
I'm not so sure about the retelling. 
For example, the mouse's tail is 



missing. Just the kind of visual 
humor little kids love, too." 

For the first time ever [sic], AAiW 
and TTLG including "The Wasp 
in a Wig" are adapted into one 
complete tale in Dynamite Enter- 
tainment's comic The Complete Alice 
In Wonderland. In this all-ages adap- 
tation, writers John Reppion and 
Leah Moore are joined by artists 
Erica Awano (interior) and John 
Cassaday (covers) for a four-issue 
adventure down the rabbit hole! It 
also includes bonus material such 
as script pages, annotations, and 
samplings of Carroll's original text. 

If you want to listen to AA?W, but 
don't have a tape player, CD 
player, iPod, or any of the other 
audio accessories available these 
days, you can buy it on a pre- 
loaded digital audio player by 
Playaway Adult Fiction (2009, 
ISBN 978-1441803764) for $54.99. 

Leiuis Carrollby Colin Ford (2009, 
ISBN 978-0500410981) is one of 
Thames & Hudson's acclaimed 
"Photofile" series, and contains 
some sixty full-page reproductions, 
together with a critical introduc- 
tion and a full bibliography. 

From the Just Local Project: "The 
infamous [sicf] story of Alice's Ad- 
ventures in Wonderland by Lewis 
Carroll has been converted to 
Australian English for the enjoy- 
ment of Australian readers. By 
reading a book in Australian Eng- 
lish, young readers need not be 
confused with dialects of English 
from overseas and can simply 
enjoy the story." 

Disney Dossiers: Files of Character from 
the Walt Disney Studios by Jeff Kurtti 
(Disney Editions, 2006, ISBN 978- 
1423100553) includes Alice and 
the White Rabbit, possibly others. 

The Big Book of Little: A Classic Illus- 
trated Edition (compiled by Cooper 
Edens, Chronicle Books, 2006, 
ISBN 978-081 1850858) includes a 
short illustrated extract from AyliW 



Illustrated on the front cover and 
described as item #48 in James 
Cummins's catalogue 102: a pre- 
sentation copy of TTLG to Marga- 
ret Fausset, December 1871, with a 
laid-in note from the recipient 
explaining the circumstances; 
"rebacked preserving original 
spine," in a case by Riviere, is for 
sale for $15,000. 

Alice in Wonderland, illustrated by 
Daniel Perez (Stone Arch Books, 
2009, ISBN 9781434215857), is a 
new graphic novel for elementary- 
school-level readers. 

Artist Nancy Wiley's new edition of 
AylzWis photo-illustrated with 
three-dimensional "stage sets" and 
18 different Alice dolls created for 
the project. The lavishly decorated 
book has a vintage feel, using 
Lewis Carroll's handwriting for the 
typeface and with page borders 
that have the aged look of an an- 
tique book. The book itself is $35; 
hand-painted dolls are $175 
(Cheshire Cat) to $350 (Alice). 
A video of her process is also on 
the site. Purchase the book or 
dolls via LCSNA member Joel 
Birenbaum (joelbirenbaum® 
comcast.net) and a portion of the 
proceeds will go to the 150th an- 
niversary event in 2015. 

The final book in Frank Beddor's 
"Looking Glass Wars" trilogy, Arch 
Enemy (ISBN 978-0803731561) is 
now available, as is the second 
volume of his graphic novel. Hatter 
M (ISBN 978-0981873718), illus- 
trated by Sami Makkonen. 

Please visit TheLiteracySite.com 
and help to fund free books for 
children without donating any 
money. Site sponsors provide 
funds based on the number of 
visitors per day who click on a link 
on the web page. The site receives 
80,000 visitors a day and has 
helped to fund the purchase of 
more than 1.6 million books. 

For those who missed out 
on the collector's edition, a 
regular edition of the Alice's 



45 



Adventures in Wonderland (ISBN 
978-0887769320) illustrated by 
Society-member Oleg Lipchenko, 
mentioned in KL 79 and featured 
on the cover of KL 80, was re- 
leased on November 10. 

The Neverending Shelf, a literary 
re\iew blog, posted a timely review 
and reminder of Lynn Truss's 
novel Tennyson's Gift (2004, ISBN 
978-1861977137; XL 69:21, 67:23). 
Set on the Isle of Wight in 1864, 
the Victorian comedy of manners 
heavily features one Charles Lut- 
widge Dodgson. According to 
Truss, best known for her manual 
of grammar Eats, Shoots and Leaves, 
the story is about "love, poetry, the 
beauty of girls with long hair, the 
questionable sagacity of men with 
beards, the language of flowers, 
and the acquisition of famous 
heads; but it is mainly about the 
insane CarroUian egotism that 
accompanies energetic genius." 

Drawing Down the Moon (ISBN 978- 
1593078133), a beautiful collec- 
tion of illustrations from the thirty- 
year career of fantasy and comic 
book artist Charles Hess, includes 
a picture of Alice in the Garden of 
Live Flowers. The entire book can 
be previewed online. 

Fantagraphics Books is advertising 
the comics compilation From Won- 
derland luith Love: Danish Comics in 
the Third Millennium (ISBN 9781- 
160699-325-5), which includes 
Julie Nord's "elegantly drawn 
'From Wonderland With Love' 
(which gives the collection its 
title), a modernistic riff on Alice in 
Wonderland." 



«« 

SI* 
CYBERSPACE 

Unfortunately, the new household- 
item shopping service website 
Alice.com, with its slogan "Every- 
one needs an Alice," seems to be 
referencing the Brady Bunch's, 
not Carroll's. 

To complete her total domination 
of cyberspace, Alice is now on Twit- 
ter, twice! Follow her adventures 



(in increments of 140 characters or 
less) in the usual order or in ran- 
dom, grammatically complete 
chunks of the text from Alice's Ad- 
ventures in Wonderland once a day. 

Russian digital artist Vlad Gera- 
simov has added a "Cheshire Kit- 
ten" (both solid and half disap- 
peared, of course!) to his 
collection of free A/zV^inspired 
graphics {KL 78:41) for computer 
(and now cellphone/iPhone) 
desktops. 

"Ever wondered what it is like to 
be Alice in Wonderland? Jump 
down the depths of the Rabbit 
Hole and find out! 'Alice Free 
Fair [game for the iPhone] lets you 
re-experience the dreamlike and 
strangely awesome decent [sic], 
which Alice made in pursuit of the 
White Rabbit. Just as in Lewis 
Carroll's novel, your journey 
through the Hole will be accompa- 
nied by mysterious Cheshire and 
lots of other strange things — both 
helpful and peculiar. Sure enough, 
the game will unfold your own 
memories and fantasies of the 
times when you were reading or 
watching Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland. Moreover, it was our inten- 
tion to make it this way — a dreamy 
and entertaining tribute to the 
great work of the great author. For 
now, the path to the Wonderland 
is open, adventure awaits." 

"Play the Alice in Wonderland 
Costume game and dress Alice in 
strange costumes worn by the 
characters of Wonderland, then 
click on the ace of spades to give 
Alice an item from the Mad Hat- 
ter!" This mildly amusing dress-up 
game from FlashArcadeGamesite. 
com appears to be designed for 
tween and younger girls. Wonder 
if they got permission from Disney 
to use the movie version of the 
Cheshire Cat in the game. 

Yet another Alice video slot-ma- 
chine game, "Alice's Wonderland," 
is available online for demo play. 
This one has attractive graphics, 
three entertaining bonus games. 



and many amusing effects (the 
Tweedles do a dance when you 
line up three of them, the Cater- 
pillar puffs on his hookah, etc.). 
However, while you can play the 
demo for free as much as you like, 
the website encourages users to 
register to play online for actual 
cash. Be warned: Although the 
demo version often lets the user 
come out ahead, it is unlikely that 
the real version is as obliging. That 
said, check it out — it's fun! 

Virtual Fairground announced on 
August 3 that it is developing Won- 
derland MMO (massively multi- 
player online), a virtual world and 
MMO game based on AAiW. The 
aim is to create an online hangout 
for teenage girls that has a darkly 
romantic and mysterious style. 

Previously available for the PS2 
and PC, "Heart no Kuni no Alice," 
a visual novel game loosely based 
on AAzVK is now available for the 
PSP. "(A) young man with white 
rabbit ears named White Peter 
drags Alice down a rabbit hole to 
Wonderland. Once Alice wakes up 
she's trapped. The Keeper of the 
Clock makes her leave the tower 
she's in and she has to find some- 
place to stay in Wonderland." 

In "Alice in Bomberland," an 
iPhone/iPod Touch game, the 
traditional Wonderland charac- 
ters, here designed by children's 
book illustrator Mark Meyers, 
juggle bombs and blow out burn- 
ing fuses while Alice attempts to 
collect as many pages as possible. 
The game features quotes and 
poems from the book, along with 
an 1 1-song soundtrack. 

Courtesy of Esquire magazine, 
actress Mary-Louise Parker reads 
from Alice dressed (or undressed) 
in what appears to be lingerie. 

From the curiouser and curiouser 
world of iPhone applications 
comes "Alice's Adventures - Rab- 
bit Hole of Death," an arcade-style 
game starring a buxom anime 
Alice. As described by the creators, 



46 



"Alice is on a dangerous mission to 
retrieve treasure from the bottom 
of the Rabbit Hole. Guide her by 
manipulating Alice's limbs 
through this highly addictive 
shape-matching, limb-bending 
puzzle game!" 



EVENTS, EXHIBITS, 6f PLACES 

Lyndhurst in Tarrytown, New York, 
one of America's finest Gothic Re- 
vival mansions and a remarkable 
example of the Hudson River's 
grand and historic estates, has an 
A&^themed room as part of its 
holiday decor each year. 

The exhibition of Maurice Send- 
ak's work. There's a Mystery There: 
Sendak on Sendak, created by the 
Rosenbach Museum and Library 
and currently at the Jewish Con- 
temporary Museum in San Fran- 
cisco from September 8 to January 
19, 2010, includes a copy of AAiW 
as an example of an important 
influence on his work. There is 
also a short video in which Sendak 
discusses Dodgson's photo portrait 
of Alice Liddell as a young woman 
(he appears to own an original 
print). 

Goblins, Grimm & Alice: The Genius 
of Arthur Rackham, an exhibit at 
the Lilly Library (Lincoln Room) 
at Indiana University from Sep- 
tember 6 to October 6, marks the 
70th anniversary of the illustrator's 
death by highlighting some of his 
most notable works, including 
those for AAiWin 1907. 

It is to be expected that Points of 
View: Capturing the 1 9th century in 
photographs, showing in the PAC- 
CAR Gallery of the British Library 
from October 30, 2009, to March 
7, 2010, will include photographs 
by Lewis Carroll. 

Mr. Lewis Carroll was unable to 
attend this year's National Book 
Festival, which took place on the 
National Mall in Washington, 
D.C., on Saturday, September 26. 
However, the delightful poster for 
the event, illustrated by artist 



Charles Santore, most cleverly 
features Alice, the Hatter, the 
March Hare, the Dormouse, the 
Caterpillar, and the White Rabbit, 
front and center as they should be. 

The sixth annual Dark Alice in 
Wonderland Ballv^as held at the 
Bossanova Ballroom in Portland, 
Oregon, on September 18. This 
costumed event celebrates the 
dark side of Alice in Wonderland 
with proceeds benefiting local 
animal shelters. 

"Travel down the rabbit hole to 
Museum Village [ a living history 
museum in Monroe, New York] on 
the 8th of August and join the 
Queen to play croquet... Have tea 
with the Mad Hatter and Alice... 
Watch as costumed performers fill 
the stage for a Live Chess Match... 
Come in best attire for all to ad- 
mire at the costume contest... And 
beware thejabberwocky." 

Following the success of last year's 
event, Oxford's virtual Story Mu- 
seum celebrated AAzWand TTLG 
with Alice's Day on July 4. Events 
included tea parties, croquet 
games, exhibits, performances, 
lectures (including some by the 
LCS (UK)'s Edward Wakeling and 
Mark Richards), walks, games, and 
more, taking place at such inter- 
esting and renowned places as the 
Museum of Natural History, the 
Bodleian Library, the Museum of 
the History of Science, the Mu- 
seum of Oxford, Christ Church, 
and the University of Oxford Bo- 
tanic Garden. If you weren't able 
to attend, download the souvenir 
guide! 

The In Focus: Making a Scene ex- 
hibit presented more than thirty 
tableaux, or staged photographs, 
from the J. Paul Getty Museum's 
world-renowned photography 
collection, on view at the Getty 
Center (Los Angeles) from June 
30 through October 18, 2009. 
Among the nineteenth- and early- 
twentieth-century selections were 
tableaux vivants, or living pictures, 
including Lewis Carroll's Saint 



George and the Dragon, inspired by 
the popular Victorian pastime of 
dressing up and posing to resem- 
ble famous works of art or literary 
scenes. 

Spanish illustrator Angel Domin- 
guez has illustrated many chil- 
dren's books and books about 
wildlife. The Wonder of Illustration, 
an exhibition of originals from 
Dominguez's 1996 illustrated edi- 
tion of AAiW {KL 53:11), was at 
the Salisbury Museum in England 
from April 4 to July 4, 2009. 

Children's author and Oxford 
resident Philip Pullman unveiled 
the Bodleian Library's nine new 
gargoyles on September 12. De- 
signed by local schoolchildren in 
2007 {KL 79:54), the gargoyles, 
including the Dodo and the Twee- 
die brothers, are now in place on 
the northwest side of the building. 

The Alice in Wonderland exhibit at 
the Museum van de Twintigste 
Eeuw [Museum of the Twentieth 
Century] of Hoorn, Netherlands 
(from May 21 to November 1) 
provided play areas, distorting mir- 
rors, life-size scenes from the 
books, a library of AAfWand TTLG 
in almost every language, and 
showings of films, including the 
first from 1903. 

To announce the first of purport- 
edly many designers creating 
Alice-related couture as a tie-in to 
the upcoming Disney movie, an 
acrobatic Mad Tea Party event 
featuring jewelry by Tom Binns 
took place at the Magic Market- 
place fashion trade show in Las 
Vegas on September 2. 

Vancouver, British Columbia's 
Community Arts Workshop Society 
celebrated its fifteenth annual 
Alice in Wonderland Festival and 
Mad Hatter's Tea Party on July 12 
with an attempt at the record for 
the world's largest gathering of 
people dressed as Alice! 

Hundreds of tissue and wicker 
playing cards, Cheshire cats and 
storybook characters lit up the 



47 



streets of Ulverston, Cumbria, 
U.K. on September 19. The theme 
of this year's annual Lantern Festi- 
val was "Wonderland: Through the 
Looking Glass." In addition to the 
lantern processions, musicians, 
dancers, and actors, "The Walrus 
and the Carpenter" was read by 
torchlight. 

The ultra-fashionable Cahuenga 
Corridor area of Los Angeles has a 
new theme bar. "Wonderland" 
patrons with concerns about the 
contents (and the effects) of the 
drinks on offer may be reassured 
by co-owner Mike Malin, inter- 
viewed in the Los Angeles Times: 
"It's a very loose 'Alice in Wonder- 
land' theme," Malin said. "We 
wanted it to be playful and whimsi- 
cal but not beat people over the 
head with it." 

Another Carroll-inspired watering 
hole has recently opened in Lon- 
don. Callooh Callay is an eclectic 
and infinitely hip gathering place 
where the signature drink, the 
Mad Hatter's Tiki Punchbowl, is 
served in "an exclusive gramo- 
phone punchbowl." Mismatched 
floral chairs, antique gramo- 
phones, black ceilings, and wrap- 
ping paper on the walls provide 
the offbeat background for con- 
viviality into the wee hours. 



MOVIES & TELEVISION 

i?M55m.' magazine's "Made in Rus- 
sia" blog has posted the Soviet- 
made /L4eWand 7TLG cartoons 
online: "Thirty years after Alice's 
colorful, light-hearted Disneyfica- 
tion, a Soviet animation studio in 
Kiev birthed Alice in Wonderland 
(1981) and Alice Through the Look- 
ing Glass (1982) — shape-shifting 
and color-swirling, comparably 
creepy thirty minute cartoons. 
Alice's most psychedelic and 
schizoid incarnation — a witty, 
pouty lash-batter with fringed dark 
locks that float and change hue — 
bounces her way over bleeding 



watercolor landscapes, minimalist 
backgrounds, and stretching and 
sinking sets. Unlike most other 
Alices, all lovely and sugar-sweet 
and just a little spoiled, the Soviet 
Alice is acidic, stubborn, bitchy, 
and very welcoming to any and all 
hallucinations Wonderland has to 
offer, conjured up in a surrealist 
frolic by the Soviet animators. So 
what that the Mad Hatter is more 
of a depressed drunkard?" 

We should have mentioned in the 
item on the Oxford Colloquium 
(/<:L 82:46-7) that Sanrio's 1993 
Hello Kittyversion, in which Kitty, a 
Japanese symbol of cuteness, plays 
the part of Alice, is available on 
DVD as a separate episode in the 
U.K., and as part of the Hello Kitty 
and Friends, Volume 3: Timeless Tales 
package in the U.S. from ADV 
Films. 

The new television show Warehouse 
13 on Syfy (formerly known as the 
Sci Fi Channel) likes Alice. "Reso- 
nance" (episode 1.2, original air 
date July 14, 2009) opens with 
Pete playing ping-pong with him- 
self via a mirror. A close-up of the 
mirror's label notes that the origi- 
nal owner was "Lewis Carroll a.k.a. 
Charles Dodgson." In "Duped" 
(episode 1.8, original air date 
August 25, 2009), "Pete is fooling 
around with Lewis Carroll's mir- 
ror, and when the disco ball from 
Studio 54 falls, Myka gets trapped 
(in the mirror), switching places 
with Alice. He returns to the files 
on Lewis Carroll and notes that 
the author was chronicling the 
insanity of the real Alice. Leena 
finds a report indicating that 
somehow Alice became trapped in 
the mirror right after committing 
a series of murders, which she now 
attempts to continue in the real 
world." 

Colored Tenniel figures were part 
of the decor of an Easter egg hunt 
in scenes from the Ugly Betty epi- 
sode "The Rabbit Test," which 
aired on ABC on April 30. 



AAzWwas the answer to one of the 
puzzles on Wheel of Fortune on May 
29. And earlier in the month, the 
final answer on Jeopardy was "In 
1865, this author wrote 'Why, 
you're nothing but a pack of 
cards!'" Sadly, only one contestant 
got it right. 

Mickey Mouse Clubhouse: Mickey 's 
Adventures in Wonderland, a DVD 
for children, was released on Sep- 
tember 8. "Meet Tweedle Chip, 
Tweedle Dale, and Goofy Hatter, 
play croquet with Queen Clara- 
belle, and more!" 

Syfy has finally started releasing 
pictures and press information for 
its four-hour miniseries Alice, an- 
nounced over a year ago {KL 
80:48) and slated for December 6 
and 7. ". . . Writer/director Nick 
Willing has created the modern- 
day story of Alice Hamilton ( Ga- 
te rina Scorsone), a fiercely inde- 
pendent twenty-something who 
suddenly finds herself on the 
other side of a looking glass. She is 
a stranger in an outlandish city of 
twisted towers and casinos built 
out of playing cards, all under the 
rule of a deliciously devilish 
Queen (Kathy Bates) who's not 
very happy about Alice's arrival. ... 
Rounding out the stellar cast are 
Tim Curry as Dodo, Colm Meaney 
as the King of Hearts, Philip Win- 
chester as Jack of Hearts, Matt 
Frewer as the White Knight, An- 
drew Lee Potts as Hatter, Alessan- 
drojuliani as 9 of Clubs, Timothy 
Webber as Carpenter, Alex Diakun 
as Ratcatcher, Zak Santiago as 10 
of Clubs, and Eugene Lipinski as 
Doctors Dee and Dum." 

Bollywood director Shashanka 
Ghosh has announced that he will 
be directing "a completely Indian- 
ised version of Alice in Wonderland, 
named Alisha." 

In Ken Burns's PBS series The 
National Parks: Am£rica 's Best Idea, it 
is mentioned that the Northern 
Pacific Railway took advantage of 



48 



the recent publication of AAiW to 
promote the Yellowstone area as a 
Wonderland. 

To celebrate his sixth year of col- 
laboration with Louis Vuitton, 
Takashi Murakami has created a 
new animated movie, "Super Flat 
First Love," as a sequel to the "Su- 
perflat Monogram" video created 
in 2003. A young girl once again 
falls down a "rabbit" hole outside a 
Vuitton Luggage store. 

October 4 was the American pre- 
mier of the episode "The Allegory 
of Love" in the Inspector Lewis se- 
ries on PBS's Masterpiece Mystery. It 
features an Oxford fantasy writer 
in the tradition of Tolkien and C. 
S. Lewis, and much is made of the 
fantasy tradition at Oxford that 
begins with Carroll. A mirror 
(which features in the writer's 
novel as a magic mirror) is used in 
an attempt to murder a young 
woman named Alice, and an unsa- 
vory Oxford don who is a Carroll 
expert is a major character. He can 
be seen polishing framed copies of 
Carroll's photographs, lecturing 
on the Mad Tea Party to a seminar, 
and defending Carroll's reputa- 
tion to a fellow don. 



MUSIC 

"Made in Bombay, born and 
raised in the UK, and currently 
based in San Francisco, Mi- 
cropixie is a self-proclaimed Alien 
with extraORDINARY Abilities. 
She is also the extraterrestrial 
alter ego of writer, filmmaker, and 
full-time human being. Single 
Beige Female. Her debut release, 
Alice in Stevie Wonderland, is a con- 
cept album telling the true story 
of One Little Alien's mission on 
planet Earth to experience life as 
a human being." 

Dutch composer Michael Corner 
has published three books of Alice 
music: Songs of Alice/From Looking- 



glass ^ Wonder Lands /Quasi-medi- 
eval exercises for two voices a cappella 
("Walrus and the Carpenter," 
"Jabberwocky," and "The Mock 
Turtle's Lament"); Pieces of Alice/ 
The Walrus and the Carpenter/ Chro- 
matic Variations for Piano Solo /; and 
More Pieces of Alice/ Loaf of Bread &" 
Soup of the Evening/ Chromatic Varia- 
tions for Piano Solo IL The instruc- 
tions in Songs of Alice dive particu- 
larly captivating. For example. 
Section 16 of "The Walrus and the 
Carpenter" ("It seems a shame to 
play them such a trick...") is to be 
sung "cheerfully unimpeded by 
feelings of sympathy, in which 
three oyster variations constitute 
the theme in both voices, while a 
slow walrus variation forms part of 
an intermittent tenor in either 
voice." The books, which are avail- 
able from the music publisher 
MIEV, cost €10 each or €25 for 
all three. They can be ordered by 
writingj.vreuls@chello.nl, and will 
be individually printed on de- 
mand, with a series number 
should the customer so desire. 

Francisco Lopez, one of the major 
figures of the musique concrete, 
sound art, and experimental music 
scenes, released Through the Look- 
ing-Glass in July, a box set of five 
CDs. Created over the last 30 years, 
this collection includes environ- 
mental recordings from the forests 
of Brazil, Argentina, and Venezu- 
ela to New York City buildings. 
However, aside from the tide and 




perhaps "inspiration," there is no 
particular connection to Carroll. 

Many musical works have been 
inspired by Lewis Carroll's Alice 
books, and even by The Hunting of 
the Snark, but nothing but aca- 
demic books have been inspired 
by his letters. Fortunately, Free 
Music Archive fills this void by 
making available Igor Ballereau's 
Lettres a des amies-enfants, five songs 
for voice, flute, clarinet, violin, 
viola, and cello performed byjody 
Pou and Ensemble SIC. Based on 
Lewis Carroll's letters to his child- 
friends Marion Richards, Dolly 
Argles, Ethel Arnold, and Jessie 
Sinclair, and on his poem "The 
Mad Gardner's Song," the five 
pieces are in an experimental 
classical style, and may or may not 
be your cup of tea. But for the 
whopping price of $0.00, they are 
definitely worth a listen. 

On May 3 at the Alex Theatre in 
Glendale, the Los Angeles Cham- 
ber Orchestra presented Through 
the Looking Glass, as part of its 2009 
family series. With assistance from 
the Los Angeles Children's Cho- 
rus, the program included Suite: 
Alice Through a Looking Glass, "a 
fun-filled work by Los Angeles- 
based composer Paul Gibson for 
the young and young-at-heart, 
based on Lewis Carroll's 'The 
Walrus and the Carpenter,' 'Be- 
neath a Sunny Sky,' and 'Jabber- 
wocky.'" Unfortunately, member 
Blossom Norman did not care for 
the piece: "This was a big disap- 
pointment to me. The choir was 
lovely, but you could not hear the 
lyrics. Also, I thought the music 
was too 'pleasant' and was not 
clever or brilliant in any way. In 
other words, nothing Lewis Carroll 
about it." 



PERFORMING ARTS 

Ron Nicol's Beware The Jabberwock 
(ISBN 978-0-87440-215-5) has 
recently been published by Baker's 
Plays, a subsidiary of Samuel 
French, Inc. The play was sug- 



49 



gested by the poem "Jabberwocky" 
and is suitable for young people to 
perform or for adults to perform 
to a young audience. 

Alice in Wonderland, performed by 
the Move-About Theatre Company 
in the Shakespeare Garden in San 
Francisco's Golden Gate Park 
from May 22 to 31, had the audi- 
ence moving from place to place 
as different scenes were enacted. 

Another performance where the 
audience follows the performers 
as the story progresses is the Ni- 
cole Caruso Dance Company's 
Wandering Alice. This roaming 
performance journey, inspired by 
the writings of Lewis Carroll and 
Haruki Murakami, premiered at 
the Philadelphia Live Arts Festival 
2008. Plans to tour the work in- 
clude a performance at First Night 
Festival in Binghamton, New York 
on December 31, 2009, and a run 
at Indiana University of Pennsylva- 
nia in April, 2010. 

In Cra/i; magazine #10 (the issue 
with Amy Sedaris on the cover, so 
you get the idea) , an article en- 
titled "Mad Tea Party" noted "The 
whimsical Barney's World of Won- 
derment turned up the color with 
handmade props and costumes at 
San Francisco's annual Castro 
Street Fair in October. A trip 
through Wonderland with these 
playful circus and street perform- 
ers left us as giddy as the Mad 
Hatter." 

"If Peter Pan and Alice left their 
normal boring lives in London 
and found each other in the same 
fantastical world, would they ever 
want to come back to reality?" 
Boom Kat Dance Company's Never- 
wonderland, performed from May 
29 through June 14 at the Miles 
Memorial Playhouse in Santa 
Monica, California, "depicts the 
search for a place in lives 'real' 
and imagined: set at the height of 
Industrial Revolution-era Eng- 
land, it deconstructs and rebuilds 
the borderland at which Never- 



land and Wonderland confront 
the world we know." 

The Anonymous Ensemble's A 
Wonderland played July 8 through 
July 1 1 as part of the Ice Factory 
Festival at NYC's Ohio Theatre. 
"Alice, a talented, urban dreamer 
approaching middle age, is caught 
in a quagmire of diminishing po- 
tential, corporate insignificance 
and the mirage of celebrity. This is 
Lewis Carroll deconstructed by the 
mind of a modern, mature song- 
stress on a journey of self-identity. 
A befeathered spectacle; a psyche- 
delic, multimedia/music-fueled 
trip down the rabbit hole." 

project: ALICE, presented by KD- 
MINDUSTRIES from May 7 to 16 
at the Carriageworks Arts Centre 
in Sydney, Australia, explores a 
Gen Y Wonderland: "On their 
travels Alice and her Hatter take 
in the sights: technology, relation- 
ships, and social connections — the 
spaces where Gen Y live; exploring 
important themes of love, friend- 
ship, energy, boredom, honesty, 
and inventiveness. From manic 
London nightclubs, neon frenzied 
Tokyo subways, and cyberspace, 
Alice follows her white rabbit on a 
fantastical journey across the globe 
and beyond. Firing through the 
online fibres which connect and 
define Alice's tech generation, she 
delights, questions, and discovers 
in a reverberating mash of sonic 
power and high energy music on 
the streets of Sydney." 

Check out the online video for 
Alice di Carta, an Italian musical 
inspired by the work of Lewis Car- 
roll by TodoModo and Artin- 
banco. 

A July 22 New York Times article, 
"Maximum Security and a Starring 
Role" by Elisabetta Povoledo, fea- 
tured Compagnia della Fortezza, a 
theater group in the maximum 
security prison in Volterra, Italy, 
and the play that the group was 
performing, Alice in Wonderland, a 
Theatrical Essay on the End of a Civi- 
lization. The director calls the play 



"a 'tragedy of power' in which the 
characters try to break free of the 
roles imposed on them by their 
playwrights." 

The comedy team behind the BBC 
Radio 2 show Fm Sorry I Haven 't 
a Clue present their own unique 
take on Lewis Carroll's most fa- 
mous work: Humph in Wonderland. 
Originally broadcast in 2007, an 
audiobook is now available from 
Amazon.co.uk or BBC Audio. 

A casting call has gone out for 
Exposure Time, a new play to be 
performed at the New Jersey Rep- 
ertory Company, in Long Branch, 
New Jersey. "In the nascent days of 
photography, sitting for a portrait 
was no mean feat and the art of 
capturing a photo was physical 
labor and highly competitive. It 
was during this time that an ambi- 
tious woman, Julia Cameron, went 
head-to-head with the neurotic 
Charles Dodgson, better known as 
Lewis Carroll, in an attempt to 
become Britain's premier photog- 
rapher. The pawn in their battle 
was Alice. Sometimes the real story 
is as mad as the made up one!" 



THINGS 

The Tahki Stacy Charles yarn web- 
site features a pattern book titled 
Book Smart. It has several literature- 
inspired garments, including a 
blue (of course) Alice in Wonder- 
land duster (more like a lace-pat- 
terned pinafore). And as long as 
you've got your knitting needles 
out, there are patterns for cute 
hedgehog toys on the Lion Brand 
Yarn website (free) and the Fiber 
Trends website ($5.95). 

One can always find hundreds of 
wonderful, and usually handmade, 
AAzWitems just by putting "Alice" 
in the search box on Etsy.com. You 
can find a particularly fun 
Cheshire Cat bag, which also 
comes as a hoodie and a t-shirt, by 
searching on "When a cat smiles." 
"When you see a cat that smiles, 
you know you're in trouble." 



50 



Find kawaii (cute) stationery and 
other fun Japanese items inspired 
by A4?Wat FromJapanWithLove's 
Etsy store and ShopKawaii.com. 

Lasercut from self-adhesive Plexi- 
glas, the "Alice in Wonderland" 
mirror designed by Matali Crasset 
cleverly looks like a girl's head 
with long hair, but wouldn't it have 
been even more clever to title it 
"Alice Through the Looking- 
Glass"? 

Almost out of date, but now on 
sale, and it's the pictures that mat- 
ter, anyway: a 2009 calendar is 
available for 2008 's Broadxvay Bares 
(AL 80:49) musical extravaganza 
and fundraiser, with scenes from 
both onstage and off. 

StampFrancisco.com has a huge 
selection of Alice rubber stamps, 
including one that displays a page 
from AAuG (#28-119). Look for 
theme 28: "Alice in Wonderland 8c 
Brownies," although what Palmer 
Cox's sprites have in common with 
Alice, outside of their coetaneous- 
ness, is a mystery. 

You can have a key made with a 
delightful purple Disney Cheshire 
Cat on it for only $5! Other Disney 
characters are available, but no 
others from Alice. Key blanks may 
be found online by Googling 
"Cheshire Cat key." 

I know that it is asking an awful lot 
of all you Carrollians out there, 
but next time you are in Michigan, 
stop in at the New Holland Brew- 
ing Company and try their Mad 
Hatter India Pale Ale. Come on, 
take one (or three) for the team! 



Online gift store The Afternoon 
carries the intriguing "Haunted 
Tea Party" tableware line: an appe- 
tizer/dessert plate that features 
the Hatter, March Hare, and Alice 
in a witch's hat at a midnight tea 
table set with pumpkin teapots; 
plates that say "Eat Me" and mugs 
that say "Drink Me" (of course); a 
punch bowl shaped like a giant tea 
cup (note the ladle); matching 
napkins; and a rather bizarre cat- 
erpillar bowl holder. Also, another 
online retailer, FlagandBanner. 
com, has a matching banner, so 
your guests will know where the 
Halloween party is. 

If you've somehow missed the very 
cool Gorey Details online shop, 
this is an excellent time to check it 
out, for in addition to their large 
selection of A/zc^related jewelry, 
rubber stamps, books, cards, art- 
work, etc., they've just added a 
great alarm clock with playing 
cards spinning around Alice's 
head to count off the seconds, as 
well as t-shirts, buttons, and statio- 
nery with new Dark Wonderland 
designs by Crab Scrambly. 

Northern California artist Susan 
Sanford has created a 2010 calen- 
dar with some very clever images: 
"Alice's adventures in Wonderland 
reimagined as if Tenniel's illustra- 
tions had leaped out of the book 
and were adventuring in the rose 
gardens and antique stores in the 
real world." Also, don't miss her 



homage to Alice and Edward 
Gorey! 

Pipos Doll Shop has released an 
AAzWseries of Japanese-style ball- 
joint dolls that includes Alice, 
"Queen (Heart) ," "Queen (White) ," 
the Hatter, and a very interesting 
Cheshire Cat. 

Connox, a German online house- 
wares store, is selling "coffee 
lights," porcelain Limoges cups 
and saucers fitted with transform- 
ers and brackets in order to be 
hung upside down as light fix- 
tures. Only €156 each, they would 
fit nicely in a Mad Tea Party- 
themed decor. 

A weekly auction of very fun items 
donated by the family of the great 
Carrollian collector Carolyn Buck 
is now live on the Society website. 
Check it out, and keep checking 
back, as new items will be added 
from time to time. 

"Psychedelic Wonderland: The 
2010 Calendar" by artist and de- 
signer John Coulthard was in- 
spired by his recent exploration of 
late-'60s psychedelic rock and the 
convenient 12-chapter format of 
Wonderland. Coulthard provides a 
month-by-month explanation of 
the calendar's vibrant illustrations 
at his website. 

The Unemployed Philosophers 
Guild new retail catalog for 2010 
lists many Alice items, including 
a new Wonderland "passport" 
pocket notebook ($5). 718-254- 
9345. 




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